Textbook Notes (363,144)
Canada (158,220)
Psychology (2,948)
PSY220H1 (200)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Jennifer Fortune

Chapter 4 J Social Perception: Perceiving the Self and Others Judgements about personal qualities and external forces ]LoL ]L2oZ[Z]}attribution theories; models that attempt to delineate the processes underlying judgements of cause Attributions causal judgements about why an event or behaviour occurred e.g. Pay It Forward LZ]L]]}L} ZZ]LZZ}L}Z]ZZZ}ZZ }2L]][Z ]]LZ} psych Harold Kelley; intuitive scientists untrained scientists who try to make causal judgements in a rational, scientific manner Kelley suggests that ppl behave intuitively in testing everyday causal judgements; make repeated observations and determine whether certain events reliably occur under specific conditions Covariation model of attribution an attribution theory proposing that we make causal judgements by determining whether a particular behaviour correlated with a person, a situation, or some combo of persons and situations False consensus effect the tendency to assume that other ppl share our own attitudes and behaviours to a greater extent than is actually the case Ko99] ]LZ[ ]Z]}LZ}Z]2L~>Z}ZZ Reasons for False Consensus: 1) we tend to interact with ppl who agree with us; not representative of Z2Lo}[L7]LZK}Z]K]o}}ZLZ2Z}L8 Discounting principle a rule of attribution that states that the perceived role of a cause will be discounted (reduced) if other plausible causes are also present (e.g. bad driving vs. the road is icy) Augmentation principle a rule of attribution that states that the perceived role of a cause will be augmented (increased) if other factors are present that would work against the behaviour (e.g. student gets a very high mark on a test wclass avg of 45% therefore the student is VERY smart Fundamental attribution error (correspondence bias):}LZ8ZLL }ZZKZoZ[ actions and words reflect their personality, their attitudes, or some other internal factor, rather than external or situational factors JL}o}}K Z}LZ}Lo]}o]L}ZoZ[ ]}LZ we believe everyone has stable personality traits and we underestimate the power of the situationcontext Correspondence bias represents a failure to use the discounting principle failure to discount internal factors when plausible external factors are present www.notesolution.com
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