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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Key Terms & Notes

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Chapter Two Contemporary Theories of Abnormality Extraordinary People Albert Ellis who suffered from irrational beliefs about public speaking associated with rational-emotive therapy Theory: set of ideas that provides a framework for asking questions about a phenomenon, as well as gathering and interpreting information about that phenomenon Vulnerability-stress model: having biological, psychological, and social approaches integrated to develop comprehensive models of the many factors that lead some people to develop a mental disorder. A person must carry a vulnerability to disorder in order to develop it, in order for the person to develop the disorder, they must experience some sort of stress or trigger Biological approach: for example, Phineas Gage view that biological factors cause and should be used to treat abnormality Biochemical theories Neurotransmitters: biochemicals that act as messengers, carrying impulses form one neuron, or nerve cell to another in the brain and in other parts of the nervous system. Neuron has a cell body and branch like structures called dendrites, which receive impulses from adjacent neurons. Impulse travels down axon and reaches synaptic terminals where the impulse stimulates the release of neurotransmitters gap between synaptic terminals and adjacent neurons synaptic gap or synapse neurotransmitter is released into the synapse and then binds to receptors: molecules on the membranes of adjacent neurons. Reuptake: occurs when initial neuron releasing the neurotransmitter into the synapse reabsorbs the neurotransmitter, decreasing the amount left in the synapse Degradation: when the receiving neuron releases an enzyme into the synapse that breaks down the neurotransmitter into other biochemicals. Endocrine system: system of glands that produces many different chemicals called hormones, which are released directly into the blood Hormone: carries messages throughout the body, potentially affecting a persons moods, levels of energy, and reactions to stress Pituitary: master gland produces largest number of different hormones and controls the secretion of other endocrine glands. It is partly an outgrowth of the brain and lies just below hypothalamus. Structural theories www.notesolution.com
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