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Chapter 17

Substance abuse chapter 17

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Martha Mc Kay

Chapter 17 Substance Related A substance is any natural or synthesized product that has psychoactive effectsit changes perceptions, thoughts, emotions, and behaviours. Males > females---> likely to try illegal drugs, but females more likely to depend on it Nearly half of the U.S. population have tried an illegal substance; 15% have used one in the past year Similar patterns run across the U.S. and Canada, though Canadians use less cocaine and more LSD than do Americans. Alcohol use is stable over time, but there has been a recent increase in ecstasy Drug use and abuse across cultures: - Muslim cultures may impose strict sanctions for the use of any drugs; China certainly did at the time of the cultural revolution. - In the UK, drug abuse is viewed as a medical problem. - Holland make a clear distinction between soft and hard drugs. - Many South Americans, Middle Easterners, & East Africans regularly chew khat and see nothing deviant in doing so. - First Nations groups in Canada and the US use In Canada, alcohol and illicit drugs costs society about 14 billion dollars a year due to lost productivity, legal costs, and health costs. There are 86,000 admissions to Canadian hospitals each year for alcohol-related health reasons Alcohol is associated with more than half of traffic deaths & homicides and 30% of all suicides. In 2002,19.3% all deaths in Canada could be attributed to alcohol, tobacco, or drugs. Substance related categories on DSM Substance intoxication: Experience of significant maladaptive behavioral & psychological symptoms due to the effect of a substance on the CNS - Their attention is diminished or easily distracted - Their perception is changed and they may hear or see strange things - They cant think straight and judgement is gone - They lose control over their bodies & cant keep balance - They want to constantly sleep or not at all - They are either gregarious or aggressive and impulsive - Even after the alcohol has almost left the bodys system, the effects are still felt Peoples expectations of a drugs affect influences their reaction after ingested Substance withdrawal: Experience of clinical significant distress in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning due to the cessation or reduction of substance use. Caffeine is not considered a substance because is does not cause impairment Withdrawal symptoms including seizures may develop several weeks after a person stops taking high doses that take a long time to leave the body completely www.notesolution.com Substance abuse: Diagnosis given when recurrent substance use leads to significant harmful consequences. However, some individuals abuse substances for years without dependence Substance dependence: Diagnosis given when substance use leads to physiological dependence or significant impairment or distress. alcohol is separated from other substances the criteria apply to all substances including alcohol If they are at the point of dependence than they are prob meeting the criteria for abuse The individuals may develop tolerance, so they need more and more to feel high, and they may have high blood concentration without feeling the effects The are compulsive to the substance & do anything to get it Five Categories of Substance Abuse Central Nervous System Depressants (e.g., alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines,inhalents) Central Nervous System Stimulants (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines, nicotine, caffeine) Opioids (e.g., heroin, morphine) Hallucinogens and phencyclidine (PCP) Cannabis Criteria for Substance Addiction Maladaptive pattern of substance use, leading to three or more of the following: 1. Tolerance, as defined by either: the need for markedly increased amounts of the substance to achieve intoxication or desired effect; markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount. e.g smoking 20 cigarettes per day to feel same high 2. Withdrawal, as manifested by either: the characteristic withdrawal syndrome for the substance; the same or closely related substance is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms. 2- people will take another substance to counteract the effects of withdraw 3. The substance is often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended. If someone intends to go out for 1 drink they cant contain themselves 4. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut back or control use. 4- they have failed attempts to quit the habit 5. A great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain the substance, use the substance, or recover from its effects. 5- the individuals are spending a lot of time doing what they can to get the substance 6. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of substance use. 6- missing obligations they have because they would rather use 7. The substance use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem caused or exacerbated by the substance.7- still using even when they know it is causing themselves psychological harm www.notesolution.com
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