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PSY240H1 (130)

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Martha Mc Kay

Chapters 9 and 10 UNIPOLAR 3 main symptoms: 1- Emotional ( feel irritable, anhedonia, sad, irritable) 2- Physiological (tired, lack of energy, appetite) 3- Cognitive ( feel unworthy, delusional, hallucinate, suicidal) Double depression- dysthymia is the baseline and sink into major depression, and have a 50% chance of being co-morbid with another disorder like panic, eating or substance abuse Depression can be a single episode, recurrent ( 2 months happy) or chronic 6 subtypes of depression: melancholic( no reactions and always sad), atypical (most common, some +ve reactions), psychotic ( delusions, hear voices), seasonal ( sad in winter, happy summer must be like this for at least 2 years), postpartum (occurs within 4 weeks of giving birth and may last 2 weeks, but some may develop into severe depression), catatonic (strange behavior, lack motor skills) Reasons why older adults may not be diagnosed as much as young people with depression: a) less willing to report b) Depression may occur because of a serious medical illness, so it is more difficult to diagnose c) DIfficult to distinguish bw depression and cognitive impairment which usually occurs at that age The low rates may be attributed to: 1) Depression is severe and may affect physical health so they may die before reaching old age 2) Old people may have learned to adapt to their depression and learned to cope, so they experience fewer episodes men more depressed than women, but men have higher rate if older and unmarried Even after a depressed person recovers they still remain at high risk for a relapse Treatment helps reduce the length of time of an episode and risk of relapse is reduced If depression is not treated it worsens Depression is less common among children than among adults. Depression may be most likely to leave psychological and social scars if it initially occurs during childhood, rather than adulthood. Research at McGill: Negative, self-critical thinking at an early age predicts depression and adjustment problems into adulthood Young boys and girls experience depressive symptoms at equal rates, but diagnoses for girls surge ahead with the onset of puberty Biological: - Genes predispose you - Dysregulation of neurotransmitters - Abnormalities in brain structure: hippocampus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, - Dysfunction in HPA - Monoamine theory of depression serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine receptors are the targets of pharmacotherapy - too much or too little, occur at reuptake, degradation, and receptors - SSRIs helps depression - research on serotonin transporter gene, but also do to other genes www.notesolution.com
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