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Ch9 Textbook Notes

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University of Toronto St. George

CHAPTER 9 MOOD DISORDERS Kay Jamison a leading researcher of mood disorders suffers from bipolar disorder published her autobiography An Unquiet Mind A Memoir of Moods and Madnessbipolar disorder or manicdepressionexperience periods of mania and depressionunipolar depression people only experience depressionUnipolar DepressionSymptoms of Depression Emotional Symptomsmost common emotion is sadness a deep unrelenting painmany report a loss of interest in everything in life anhedonia Physiological and Behavioural Symptomsmany bodily functions are disruptedchanges in appetite loss of or more of sleep sleep all day or insomnia early morning wakening activity levelspsychomotor retardation condition where people with depression are slowed downlack energy report feeling chronically fatiguedsome have psychomotor agitation feel physically agitated cant sit still Cognitive Symptomsthoughts may be filled with themes of worthlessness guilt hopelessness suicidehave trouble concentrating and making decisionsin severe cases lose complete touch with reality experience delusions and hallucinationsdelusions are beliefs with no basis in realityhallucinations involve seeing hearing or feeling things that arent realusually are depressing and negative in contentThe Diagnosis of Unipolar Depressive Disordermajor depressionrequires a person experience either depressed mood or loss of interest in usual activities plus at least four other symptoms of depression chronically for 2weekssymptoms must be severe enough to interfere with persons ability to function in everyday lifedysthymic disorderless severe more chronicperson must be experiencing depressed mood plus two other symptoms for 2years during which person must never have been symptom free for more than 2 monthsdouble depression people who are chronically dysthymic and occasionally have episodes of major depressionrather than recovering to normal mood return to dysthymiaover half of people with major depression or dysthymia also have another psychological disordermost common are substance abuse anxiety disorders eating disordersDSMIVTR recognizes several subtypesdepression with melancholic features physiological symptoms are prominentdepression with psychotic features experience delusions and hallucinations during major depression episodesdepression with catatonic features show catatonia ranging from complete lack of movement to excited agitationdepression with atypical featuresdepression with postpartum onset when major depression episode occurs within 4 weeks of giving birthdepression with seasonal pattern or seasonal affective disorder SAD history of at least 2 years major depressive episode occur during one season some have mild to full mania during summer months bipolar disorder with seasonal patternPrevalence and Course of Depressionstudy by Statistics Canada found 122 lifetime prevalencemajor depressive episode most common among 1524 year oldsdecreasing rates in age 2554 increase in age 85depression interferes with physical health thus people with a history of depression are more likely to die before reaching old ageas people age develop more adaptive coping skillswomen are about twice as likely than men to develop depressionis a longlasting recurrent problem for some peopleeven after recovering remains at high risk for relapsevery costly to society and individualin Canada productivity losses total approx 26 billion in 1998approx 71 of Canadians who had a major depressive episode in the last 12 months were employedmany with depression never seek care or wait years after symptoms have begunoften because they feel they should be able to get over symptoms on their ownDepression in Childhood and Adolescenceless common in children than adults1520 of youth will experience an episode of major depression before age 2025 girls 10 boys in grades 6 8 10 reported elevated depressive symptoms The Scars of Childhood Depressionimportant time when selfconcept is being developednegative selfview vulnerability for developing depression across life spancan interfere with learning longterm effect on achievementcan impair social skills longterm effect on social relationshipsmay lead to increases in other kinds of stressors eg on parents
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