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Chapter 3

CH3 Textbook Notes

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University of Toronto St. George

CHAPTER 3 THE RESEARCH ENDEAVOUR - challenges in studying psychopathology - populations of interest can be difficult to convince to participate in research - abnormal behaviours and feelings are difficult to measure accurately - researchers often rely on self-report of their internal states and experiences - observers assessment can also be biased by stereotypes - most forms of abnormality have multiple causes - this chapter will examine the idea that stress causes depression The Scientific Method Defining the Problem and Stating a Hypothesis - hypothesis: a testable statement of what we predict will happen in the study - e.g. people who have recently experienced stress are more likely to be depressed than people who havent - null hypothesis: expectation that there is no relationship between the phenomena being studied - e.g. people who experience stress arent more likely to develop depression than people who dont Choosing and Implementing a Research Method - variable: a factor or characteristic that can vary within an individual or between individuals - e.g. weight, mood, neurotransmitter level, height, sex, ethnicity - dependent variable: the factor being predicted in a study - e.g. depression - independent variable: the factor that is believed to affect the dependent variable - e.g. stress - depression: a syndrome or collection of the following symptoms: sadness, loss of interest in ones usual activities, weight lossgain, changes in sleep, agitationslowing down, fatigue and loss of energy, feelings of worthlessnessexcessive guilt, concentration problemsindecisiveness, suicidal thoughts - stress: peoples emotions and behaviours in response to a stressor (an uncontrollable and unpredictable event that challenges the limits of peoples abilities to cope) - operationalization: the way a researcher measures or manipulates the variables in a study - if we define depression as symptoms meeting criteria for a depressive disorder, we will operationalize depression as diagnoses - if we define depression as symptoms along a range of severity, we will operationalize depression as scores on a depression questionnaire - in operationalizing stress, must decide whether to focus on stressful events or on peoples stress reactions to these events www.notesolution.com
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