Textbook Notes (369,072)
Canada (162,367)
Psychology (2,981)
PSY240H1 (130)

Chapter III.docx

6 Pages

Course Code
Martha Mc Kay

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 6 pages of the document.
Chapter III: The Research Endeavour Challenges: - Population of interest can be difficult to convince to participate in research - Self-reports of own internal states and experiences can be distorted, observer’s assessments can be biased by stereotypes - Most forms of abnormality probably have multiple causes The Scientific Method: - Basic series of steps designed to obtain and evaluate information relevant to a problem in a systematic way 1. Hypothesis: a testable statement of what we predict will happen in the study  If data supports hypothesis, there is support for the idea, but idea will not be proven correct  Null hypothesis: no relationship between the dependent and independent variablesstudy may not be well designed enoughrevise methodology 2. Research Method:  Variable: a factor that vary within or between individuals a) Dependent variable: factor being predicted in a study b) Independent variable: factor believed to affect the dependent variable  Operationalization: the way a research measures of manipulates the variables 3. Data Collection & Analysis 4. Conclusion 5. Research Report Case Studies: - Detailed histories of individuals with a form of psychological disorder - Individual interviews Pros Cons - Captures the uniqueness of the - Can be published and overlooked individual - Study of an individual may not - Detailed nuances of an individual’s apply to many other individuals or life and experiences, individual’s groups (Generalizability) own words can be used to describe - Lack of objectivity of bother the self-experience individual and the therapist - Only way to study rare problems - Difficulties in replication: one case - Help generate new ideas study may not repeat/replicate the conclusions of another Correlational Studies: - Examines the relationship between and independent variable and a dependent variable without manipulation - Most common in psychology and medicine  Continuous variables study: Study of two or more continuous variables (measured along a continuum); most common in abnormal psychology  Group comparison study: Study of the relationship between people’s membership in a particular group and their scores on some other variable (Ex. Measuring depression in bereaved and non-bereaved group) - Can be cross-sectional (observe people at only one point in time) or longitudinal (observe people on two or more occasions over time)  Ex. Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project: examined relations between early aggressive behaviour in childhood and risk for violent behaviour in adulthood 1. Measuring the Relationship Between Variables: - Correlation Coefficient: statistic used to represent the relationship between variables, denoted with the symbol r, fall between -1.00 and +1.00  Positive correlation: ↑ independent variable, ↑ dependent variable  Negative correlation: ↑ independent variable, ↓ dependent variable  (r)=0: zero correlation, no relationship - Usually in the low to moderate range; some relationship but far from perfect - Magnitude (size): the degree to which the variables move in tandem with each other; how close the correlation coefficient is to either -1.00 or +1.00 - Statistical Significance: an index of how likely it is that result occurred simply by chance  (p) < .05: the probability is less than 5% that the result occurred by chance; typically accept results at this level of significance - Significance at (p) < .05 level determined by the magnitude and the size of the sample - Larger correlations and larger sample sizes increase the likelihood of achieving statistical significance - (r) = 0.30 will be significant if based on a sample of 200+, but not significant if based on a sample of 10- - (r) = 0.90 will be statistically significant even if the sample is 30 people - Correlation v. Causation: - Correlations do not tell us anything about causation; only tells whether a relationship exists or not - Third variable problem: the possibility that variables not measured are the real cause of the relationship between variables measured 2. Selecting a Sample: - A group of people taken from the population that we want to study (Ex. Bereaved) - Representativeness: a representative sample is highly similar to the population of interest in terms of sex, ethnicity, age, and other important variables  More women or people of color in sample than population of interestbias  Important to the generalization - Effective way to obtain a sample is by random - Selection of a comparison group (Ex. Non-bereaved); good idea to match sample group with the comparison group on any variable other than the independent variable Pros Cons - Focus on situations occurring in the - Cannot separate cause and effect real worldgood external validity - Potential for bad timing (extent to which results can be - Longitudinal studies can be generalized to real life) time-consuming and expensive - Longitudinal studies can determine - Suffer from the third variable whether there are differences before problem; seldom can measure all and after the event; can assess both possible influences short and long term reactions Epidemiological Studies: - Study of the frequency and distribution of a disorder in a population; how many people have the disorder and how this number varies across important groups - Focuses on three types of data: 1. Prevalence (%): The proportion of the population that has the disorder at a given point or period in time  Lifetime prevalence: % of people with the disorder sometime in their lives  12-month prevalence: % of people with the disorder in any 12-month period 2. Incidence: The number of new cases of the disorder that develop during a specific period  One year incidence: the number of people who develop the disorder during a one-year period 3. Risk Factors: conditions or variables that are associated with a higher risk of having the disorder - Identify population of interestidentify random sampleuse structure clinical interviews with a specific set of questions to assess symptoms and risk factors Pros Cons - Valuable info on prevalence rate, - Cannot establish a cause incidence rate, and risk factors - Third variable problem - Identify those at high riskcan be used to test hypotheses Experimental Studies: - Study that attempts to control the independent variable and any third variable rather than simply observing them as they naturally occur 1. Human Laboratory Studies/Analogue Studies:  Expose participants to a stressor (Ex. unsolvable puzzle) in a laboratory and determine whether it causes an increase in depressed mood  Also called analogue study because researchers attempt to create lab
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.