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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 The Neuroscience of Learning and Memory

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Daniela Palombo

Chapter 2 – The Neuroscience of Learning and Memory Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral cortex lying at the front of the human brain; enables a person to plan and perform actions. Parietal Lobe: The part of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the human brain; important for processing somatosensory (touch) information and motor outputs. Temporal Lobe: The part of the cerebral cortex lying at the sides of the human brain; important for language ad auditory processing and for learning new facts ad forming new memories of events. Occipital Lobe: The part of the cerebral cortex lying at the rear of the human brain; important for visual processing. “Frontal is Front, Parietal is at the Peak, Temporal is behind the Temples, and Occipital lobe is Outermost.” The frontal lobes help you plan and perform actions, the occipital loves allow you to see and recognize the world, the parietal loves enable you to feel the differences between silk and sandpaper, and the temporal loves make is possible for you to hear and to remember what you’ve done. The cerebellum contributes to coordinated movement and is important for learning that involves physical action. Brainstem: A group of structures that connects the rest of the brain to the spinal cord and plays key roles in regulating automatic unction such as breathing and regulating body temperature. Thalamus is a structure that receives sensory information, Basal Ganglia is a group of structures that are important for planning and producing skilled movements. Hippocampus inside temporal loves important fr learning new information about facts or remembering autobiographical events. Amygdala important in adding emotional content to memories. Much of what is known about neural bases of learning and memory comes from studies o animals other than humans Comparative brain anatomy studies similarities and differences among organisms’ brains. Cerebral cortex is associated with functions such as language and complex thought. Broca concluded that left frontal lobe contains specialized region for speech production. Phrenology: A field of study that attempted to determine mental abilities by measuring head shape and size, proposed by Gall. Structural neuroimaging: techniques such as MRI and CT for creating images of anatomical structures within the living brain. Computed Tomography (CT): A method of structural neuroimaging based on multiple x-rays. Can show location of abnormality such as tumor with much better accuracy than a single x-ray. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): uses changes in magnetic fields to generate images of internal structure. Magendie identified two speciic types of nerve fibers one set carrying sensory information from PNS into spinal cord, ad a second set carrying motor signals back from spinal cord to muscles. Bell’s idea: sensory and motor fibers separated in spinal cord. Bell-Magendie aw of neural specialization: the spinal cord has two parallel nerve systems, one devoted to sensing and the other to responding. Primary motor cortex (M1) generates coordinated movements. Neuropsychology: relation between brain function and behavior by examining functio
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