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PSY260H1 - learning 8

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY260H1
Professor
Jan Paulsson
Semester
Fall

Description
Learning Learning arelativelypermanentchangeinbehaviorduetopracticeandexperience learning: isnotalwaysobservedbutcanbehidden(latentlearning) isnotalwaysconsistent indicatesatendencytorespond,notnecessarilyaspecificresponse dependsonavarietyofenvironmentalandphysiologicalfactors canbeunintentional(incidentallearning) Conditioning theacquisitionoffairlydefinedpatternsofbehaviortoawelldefinedstimuli therearetwotypesofconditioning: classicalconditioning(asknownasPavlovianconditioning) operantconditioning(alsoknownasinstrumentalconditioning) ClassicalConditioning attributedtoIvanPavlov occurswhenanorganismlearnstotransferaresponsefromonestimulustoanotherunlearned stimulus BasicElements unconditionedstimulus(UCS):astimulusthatinvariablycausesanorganismtorespond unconditionedresponse(UCR):aresponseorreactiontoanunconditionedstimulus conditionedstimulus(CS):apreviouslyneutralstimulusthat,whenpairedtotheUCS,elicitsa desiredresponseinanorganismwhenpresentedalone conditionedresponse(CR):aresponseorreactiontoaconditionedstimulus PavlovsExperiment inPavlov'sclassicexperiment,dogswouldnaturallysalivate(UCR)tothepresentationoffood (UCS) bypairingthepresentationoffoodwiththesoundofabell(CS),thesoundingofthebellalone wouldelicitsalivation(CR)inthedog PavlovsExperimentDiagraminPowerPoint TemporalRelationship thetemporalrelationshipbetweentheUCSandCSisimportant therearethreepossiblerelationships: forwardpairing(ortraceconditioning):whentheCSispresentedbeforetheUCSthisisthe mosteffectivemethod backwardpairing:whentheCSispresentedaftertheUCS simultaneouspairing:whentheCSispresentedatthesametimeastheUCS OtherTheoristsandApplications WatsonandRayner LittleAlbertwasconditionedtofeartheappearanceofawhiterat(CS)bypairingitwitha loudnoise(UCS) theresponseinbothcaseswastobecomefearfulandcry WatsonandRayner'sexperimentshelptoshowhowclassicalconditioningcanbeatplaywith phobias WolpeandRachman somethingfrightening(aloudnoise)ispairedwithapreviouslyneutralstimuli(awhiterat) and,afterthat,thatstimulus(whiterat)becomesthefocalpointforaphobia M.E.P.Seligman believesinpreparedness,thatobjectsorsituationstowardwhichanindividualdevelopsa phobiaare"relatedtothesurvivalofthehumanspeciesthroughthelongcourseofevolution objectsorsituationsthatdonotrelatetosurvivalarenotaslikelytodevelopintoaphobia, whichSeligmancallscontrapreparedness Wolpe desensitizationtherapyusesclassicalconditioningtohelpthephobicindividualbygradually lesseningtheirfearsofobjectsoreventsbyassociatingthemslowlywithmorepositiveor neutralthoughtsandbehaviors MaryCoverJones usedaformofthistherapybytreatingachildtonolongerbeafraidofwhiterat placedaratinacageinthesameroomasthechildbutfedhimcandywhilethecagewas movedcloserandcloser ultimately,thechildreplacedhisfearoftheratwithpositivefeelingsassociatedwithcandy. FactorsinConditioning interstimulusinterval:thetimebetweenthepresentationoftheUCSandtheCS ifthisistoolongortooshortanamountoftimeitcaninterferewithconditioning intermittentpairing:aninconsistencyinthepresentationoftheUCSandtheCS thiswillreducetherateandacquisitionoftheconditionedresponse behavioraldefinition:acleardefinitionofabehaviorthatistobeobservedand/orchanged throughconditioning habituation:anorganism'sadaptationtosurroundingstimulisothatisnolongeradistraction extinction:agradualreductionintheassociationbetweentheUCSandtheCS,typicallybecause theyarenolongerpairedtogethertoapointwheretheUCSandCSarenolongerassociatedwith oneanother restperiod:whentheCSisnotpresentedwiththeUCSforaperiodoftime spontaneousrecovery:theinstantreassociationafterthepassageoftimeoftheUCSandCS becauseofthepairingoftheUCSwiththeCS reconditioning:occurswhentheUCSandCSareagainpairedafterextinction stimulusgeneralization:theresponsetoadifferentbutsimilarstimulus stimulusdiscrimination:theresponsetoonlyaspecificstimulusandnottoothersimilarstimuli responsegeneralization:respondinginadifferentwaybutthatissimilartotheoriginalresponse sensorypreconditioning:twoneutralstimuliarepaired(e.g.alightandablacksquare)andboth arepairedwithanUCS(e.g.food);aftertheinitialpairing,onlyoneofthestimuli(e.g.light)is pairedwiththeUCS,elicitingaCR;thenonpairedstimuli(e.g.blacksquare)willstill,however, elicitaCRHigherOrderConditioning higherorderconditioning(orsecondorderconditioning) involvesusingaCSasanUCStofurtherconditiontheorganism inPavlov'sexperiment,heusedthebellasanUCStotrainhisdogstosalivatetothesightofa blacksquare(thenewCS) OperantConditioning EdwardLeeThorndike LawofEffect behaviorselicitingapleasanteffectwillbe"stampedin"andbehaviorselicitinganunpleasant effectwillbe"stampedout" B.F.Skinner operant(orinstrumental)conditioningwherebybehaviorincreaseswhenareinforceris presentedanddecreaseswhenapunishmentiscarriedout Skinner'sclassicexperimentaratpressesabarina"Skinnerbox"whichdeliversafood pellet(positivereinforcement),therebyreinforcingsubsequentbarpressingbehavior. TypesofReinforcers positivereinforcer:anyeventwhosepresenceincreasesthelikelihoodofabehaviorreoccurring negativereinforcer:anyeventwhosereductionoreliminationincreasesthelikelihoodofa behaviorreoccurring punishment:anyeventwhosepresencedecreasesthelikelihoodofabehaviorreoccurring primaryreinforcer:onethatisrewardinginandofitself;foodandwateraregoodexamplesof primaryreinforcers secondaryreinforcer:onlyhasvaluebecauseitisassociatedwithaprimaryreinforcer;moneyis themostcommonexamplebecauseitonlyhasvaluebecauseitcanbetradedforsomethingthe
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