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PSY260H1 personality 15 notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY260H1
Professor
Jan Paulsson
Semester
Fall

Description
Personality Definition personalityisanindividual'suniquethoughts,feelingsandbehaviorthatpersistovertimeand differentsituations personalitytheoristsattempttodescribehowindividualsremainconsistentintheirthoughts, feelingsandbehaviors theyalsoattempttoexplainhowpeopledifferintheirpersonalities SixPsychologicalPerspectives Therearesixmainschoolsofthoughtregardingpersonality: psychodynamic:focusesonunconsciousmotivesandstructurestoexplainpersonality humanistic:focusesonthefundamentalgoodnessofpeopleandtheirattemptstostrivefor higherlevelsoffunctioning constitution(ortype):proposesarelationshipbetweenbodytypeandpersonality characteristics trait:examinesstablecharacteristicsofthepersonthathelpexplainbehavior socialcognitive:focusesonenvironmentalcontingenciesandaccompanyingmentalprocesses toexplainpersonality behavioral:focusesonthefundamentalsoflearningtoexplainbehavior Psychodynamic:SigmundFreud themostwellknownpsychodynamictheoristifSigmundFreud. Freudfocusedonthepowerofinnerforcesasmotivatorstoshapepersonality hebelievedthattheseunconsciousmotivationscouldbeexaminedthroughtheuseof psychoanalysis,whichincludesthreemaintechniques: freeassociation:allowingthepatienttosaywhatevercomestomind dreamanalysis:attemptstoexaminethelatent(hidden)contentofadreamthrough examiningitsmanifest(remembered)dreamelements hypnosis:astateofsuggestibilityinducedbythetherapist(learnedthroughhisstudieswith JeanMartinCharcot) throughhisassociationwithhismentor,JosefBreuer,Freud'spsychodynamictheoryisbased onafewkeyfindingsofBreuer'sthatFreudelaborateon: 1. underlyingsymptomscanberelievedthroughtheexpressionofthestrangulatedaffect, orbringtheseunconsciousmotivestothesurfacetheprocessofpurgingtheseemotions iscalledcatharsis 2. thesymptomssomeonedisplayshaveanemotionallogicandthekeytopsychoanalysisis tounlockthemysteriesofthesesymptoms 3. alotofabnormalbehaviorsarearesultofemotionallyabrasiveexperiencesinour childhood;theyunconsciouslygrowintoabnormalbehaviorsasthepersongetsolder Freudstheoriesarebasedonpsychicdeterminism,ortheassumptionthatourearlylife determinesourbehaviorandunconsciousreactions. Freudbelievedweallhadcertaindrivesandinstinctswhichguideourbehavior: eros:thelifeinstinctwhichseekstopreservethespecies;hunger,thirstandsex;tiedtothe libido libido:oursexualenergy thanatos:ourdesiretoreturntothewomb;manifestedinaggressiveanddestructivebehavior Freudbelievedthateveryoneprogressedthroughfivestagesofpsychosexualdevelopment thesestagesare: oralstage(01years):achieveslibidinalsatisfactionfromoralactivitiessuchaseatingand sucking analstage(13years):autonomyisdevelopedthroughbladderandbowelcontrol phallicstage(36years):thechildcomestodevelopasexualattachmenttotheoppositesexed parentandtoseethesamesexedparentasarivalforthoseaffections OedipusComplex:boyswanttopossessthemotherandseetheirfatherasasexualrival ElectraComplex:girlswanttopossessthefatherandseetheirmotherasasexualrival latencyperiod(6puberty):aperiodofsexualrestforbothsexeswheresexroleidentities develop genitalstage(pubertyon):areawakeningofsexualurgesandadesireforheterosexual relationships Freudbelievedthatthemindorourpersonalitywasmadeupofthreeconstructs: theid:thechildwithinus;theprimitive,unconsciouspartofourmindthatseeksexpressionof wishesandemotions(calledthepleasureprinciple) theego:usestherealityprincipletosatisfytheidandsuperegosafelyandeffectivelyinthe realworld;themediatorthatdevelopswithexperienceandistherationalpartofourmind thesuperego:society'svaluesandmorals;ourconscience;theparentwithinuswhichis guidedbytheidealisticprinciple Individualsconstantlystrivetopresenttheirbestselfandreduceanxiety Freudcalledthispreservingegointegrity Todothis,individualsemployavarietyofdefensemechanisms: repression:involuntarymemorylossaboutsomethinganxietyproducing suppression:voluntarilynotthinkingaboutsomethinganxietyproducing denial:notfacinguptotherealityofasituation rationalization:makingupexcusesforouractions displacement:rechannelingaggressioninanegativeway;takingourfrustrationsoutona substitutepersonorobject sublimation(alsocalledcompensation):rechannelingaggressioninaneutralorpositiveway projection:puttingontoothersourowntendencies,motivesortraits reactionformation:behavingoutwardlythatoppositeofhowweinwardlyfeel fantasy:escapingrealitythroughdaydreamingorusingtheimagination procrastination:puttingoffsomethinganxietyproducinguntilalatertime fixation:becomingstuckataspecificstageofpsychosexualdevelopmentbecauseitissaferfor egointegrity regression:returningtoanearlierstageofpsychosexualdevelopment neoFreudiansrefinedanddevelopedFreud'stheories theydidnotagreethatourlibidoguidedthemajorityofouractionsbutfoundothersourcesfor ourmotives FreudsConsciousnessDiagramp.597 Psychodynamic:CarlJung CarlJungwasFreud'shandpickedsuccessorinthefieldofpsychodynamictheoryhediffered fromFreudonseveralfundamentalissues. Jungbelievedthatourpersonalityormindwas
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