Learning (conditioning) - is a relatively permanent
change in behavior or knowledge that comes from
experience or training.
Social Learning Theory
Our personality is the product of our conduct.
Ivan Pavlov – Russian Physiologist
Learning to transfer a natural response from one
stimulus to another previously neural stimulus.
Basic Elements of Classical Conditioning
Unconditioned Stimulus (US): A stimulus that will
provoke a response without training
Unconditioned Response (UR): The response to an
unconditioned stimulus e.g. salivation
Conditioned Stimulus (CS): A stimulus that is paired
with a US, and comes to provoke the same response as
the US (in the absence of the US)
e.g. bell Conditioned Response (CR): The same response as
the UR, but now to a CS, rather than to a US
What would happen if Pavlov kept ringing the bell but
didn’t give the dogs any more food? The conditioned response (CR) would eventually disappear or be
Extinction takes place, when you repeatedly present the
conditioned stimulus (CS) without the (US).
The tendency for an extinguished conditioned response
to recur after a rest period.
The tendency for the conditioned response to occur in
response to stimuli similar
to the original conditioned stimulus.
The opposite of generalization
The learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned
stimulus and other
The timing of the presentation of the CS and US. The
interstimulus interval is best when the CS is presented
just before the US. The bell is rung, and then a few
moments later the food is presented.
Conditioned Food Aversion We naturally avoid foods which have made us sick in
the past. This especially occurs with “Novel” foods that
we have little prior experience with.
Aversion Therapy for Drinking
John Watson “Little Albert”
Conditioned Fear Later, Little Albert’s fear generalized. He was afraid of
not only white rats, but also white bunnies and the white
fur collar on his mother’s coat.
Thorndike’s Law of Effect – Responses which are
accompanied or closely followed by satisfaction to the