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Chapter 3

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Gillian Rowe

PSY270 Lecture 3 Chapter 3 Perception Perception: experiences resulting from stimulation of the senses. can change based on added information can involve process similar to reasoning or problem solving. Complex process (unconscious) Allows us to accomplish tasks: memory, knowledge, problems, communication cognition Bottom-up processing: processing that begins with stimulation of the receptors (when see image) Physiological: light reflected from tree stimulates visual receptors in eye, triggers electrical signals to be sent to brain and thus becomes our perception. Behavioural: perception can be created by combinations of individual features (Biederman) o Biederman: recognition by components (RBC) theory proposes that we perceive objects by perceiving elementary features like those in geons. Geons: perceptual building blocks combined to create object. Recognize object if we are able to perceive just a few of its geons Principle of componential recovery if we can recover (see) an objects geons, we can identify the object. (only see partial part of the object) Perception depends on additional information, such as information about the environment and prior knowledge. Top-down processing: processing that begins with a persons prior knowledge or expectations involved in our ability to recognize objects based on a few geons, or when large portions of the object are obscured. Eg. Knowledge of language makes it possible to perceive individuals words in conversation even though the sound signal for speech is often continuous Feedback signals: signals that travel down from higher centers (of brain) to influence incoming signals. Perceiving size if two objects are perceived to be at different distances but cast the same sized image on the retina, perceptual system takes the distance of the farther object into account, so it is perceived as its true larger size. Perceptual system could take into account size of objects relative other objects in the environment. size consistency: we tend to perceive objects as remaining the same size even when they move to different distances. Perception of the size of an object does not depend solely on the size of the objects image on the receptors Perceiving odor intensity Teghtsonian et al.: asked participants in lab setting to rate odor intensity of different odorants o found that participants gave almost identical ratings for weak sniffs and strong sniffs. o Strength of sniff did not influence odor intensity ratings participants were taking strength of sniff into accounts when making ratings. = > goal of perceptual system is to provide accurate information about our environment (important for survival). Role of Top-Down processing www.notesolution.com
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