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Chapter 6

Chapter 6 reading

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Gillian Rowe

PSY270 Lecture 6 Chapter 6 Long-Term Memory: Structure Koraskoffs syndrome: condition caused by vitamin B1 deficiency, usually as a result of chronic alcoholism causes severe and permanent impairments to frontaltemporal lobes -> memory Anterograde amnesia: loss of ability to assimilateretain new knowledge Retrograde amnesia: loss of memory for events that happened in the past. Long-term Memory (LTM): system responsible for storing information for long periods of time. long and very large STMWM is very short and very limited. LTM helps add to understanding and interpretation. Provides an archive for reference and background information we consult as we use our working memory to make contact with a particular moment. Murdoch: serial position experiment read 15 words at rate of 2 seconds, asked person to write all words remembered in order. Function: serial position curve. o Memory is better for words at the beginning of the list and at the end o Primacy effect: time to rehearse and transfer to LTM. o Recency effect: most recently presented words are still in the STM. Encoding in LTM: involves auditory, visual and semantic coding (like STM). semantic coding is the predominant type of coding. o Illustrated by kinds of errors people make in tasks involving LTM. Misremember tree as bush indicates meaning of word (instead of visual appearance or sound) was registered in LTM. Sachs: recognition memory identification of stimulus encountered earlier. Procedure is to present a stimulus during a study period and later present this stimulus with other stimuli. o Eg. initial: house. Then house + table + money. Task: answer yes if word was presented previously or not. Not recall task (not fill in the blanks) but asked to recognize if item was present. participants read passage and indicate which sentence identical to passage and which were changed. Participants remembered the meaning and not exact wording. Specific wording is forgotten but general meaning can be remembered. Location of STMLTM in brain Neuropsychological studies: double dissociation: some have poor STM, but functioning LTM or vice versa. o STM and LTM operate independently and are served by different mechanisms. o Eg. Clive: had STM but no LTM o Eg. H.M: had STM but no LTM due to removal of hippocampus on both sides of brain Showed possible lose ability to form LTM while retaining STM. STM and LTM are caused by different mechanisms which can act independently. Brain Imaging: Talmi et al: measured fMRI to tasks involving STM & LTM o Presented list of words, then a probe beginning, end, or not presented www.notesolution.com
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