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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 reading

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Gillian Rowe

PSY270 Lecture 6 Chapter 7 Long Term Memory: Encoding and Retrieval - Main factor that determines retrieval of information from LTM is the way information was encoded when you learned it. Encoding Rehearsal: repeating info over and over - does not guarantee information from STM to be transferred to LTM. - Maintenance rehearsal: maintains information in STMWM but not an effective way of transferring information into LTM (eg. repeating a phone number) - Elaborative rehearsal: more effective at transferring information into LTM. Occurs when you think about meaning of an item or make connections between the item and your knowledge. Level of processing theory: Levels-of-processing theory: memory depends on how information is encoded. With deeper processing results better encoding and retrieval than shallow processing. - Craik & Lockhart o Word list experiment Count vowels, count backwards in 3s Visualize how you would use item on island, then count back in 3s Found that memory is superior when meaningful connection is made. o Memory depends on the depth of processing that an items receives. Shallow: little attention to meaning attention is focused on physical features, used in maintenance rehearsal. Deep: close attention, focus on meaning and relate to something else. - Craik & Tulving: shows how depth of processing can be varied by asking different questions o Shallow: asked questions about physical characteristics (eg. capital letter?) o Deep: asking about words sound (eg. rhyme) o Deepest: task involving words meaning (eg. fill in the blanks) o Then given memory test to see how well recalled words - Desert island or fill in blanks = deeper processing? Desert island. o Circular reasoning: occurs because depth of processing not defined independently of memory performance. Cannot use memory performance to determine depth of processing. Memory is better following desert island task, thus includes deeper processing, thus memory will be better following the desert island task. - Hard to define depth of processing independently of memory performance. Research showing that encoding influences retrieval 1) placing words in complex sentence a. Craik & Tulving: memory for word better when presented in a complex sentence. Complex sentences create more connections between word to be remembered and other things acts as a cue to help retrieval. 2) forming visual images a. Bower & Winzenz: visual imagery connect words to improve memory? i. Paired-associate learning procedure, where list of word pairs presented. Then first word is presented and asked what it was paired with. ii. One group: silently repeat, another to form images iii. Image group remembered more than twice as many words 3) linking words to yourself a. self-reference effect: memory better if relate a word to yourself i. Rogers et al: used same experiment as Craik & Tulvings depth of processing. 1. Physical characteristics, rhyming, meaning, self-reference 2. More likely to remember words describing themselves. 4) generating information a. Slameka & Graf: demonatrated generation effect b. Participants study list of word pairs - read generate group (fill in blank) 1 www.notesolution.com
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