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Chapter 9

Chapter 9 reading

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Gillian Rowe

PSY270 Lecture 8 Chapter 9 Knowledge & Categorization Concept: mental representation that is used for a variety of cognitive functions (memory, reasoning, language) Categorization: function of concepts, process by which things are placed into categories. o Essential tool for understanding of the world, especially things weve never seen before. o Provides information about item in category How are objects placed into categories Why definitions dont work for categories Definitional approach to categorization: we place objects into categories based on whether it meets the definition of the category. (eg. square plane with 4 equal sides) However, many natural objects and human made objects, definitions do not work well. o Chair: piece of furniture consisting of seats, legs, back most chairs have such, but there Wittgenstein : family resemblance idea: things in a particular category resemble one another in a number of ways, which allows for variation. o categorization is based on determining how similar an object is to some standard The prototype approach: finding the average case prototype approach to categorization: membership in a category is determined by comparing object to a prototype (typical member) that represents the category. Rosch: proposed that the typical prototype is based on an average of members of a category that are commonly experienced. o Bird eg. sparrows, robins, blue jays o Prototypicality: variations within categories as representing differences (owls, penguins) o High prototypicality: category member closely resembles category prototype o Low: does not closely resemble typical member of category. o Experiment: presented participants with category title birdfurniture and a list of about 50 members of the category. Participants rate extent member represented category on 7 point scale (1: high, 7: Most agreed on sparrow and chairsofa as the typical member. Most agreed on bat and telephone as least typical member. Prototypical objects have high family resemblance o Rosch & Mervis: asked participants to describe characteristics of chair, sofa, mirror, telephone found that when items characteristics has a large overlap with other items of a category, meant family resemblance is high. (little = low) strong relationship bw family resemblance & prototypicality. Statements about prototypical objects are verified rapidly o Smith et al used procedure called sentence verification technique to determine how fast people could answer questions about an objects category. given statements, say yes if agree, no if not. Responded faster for objects high in prototypicality typicality effect ability to judge highly prototypical objects rapidly Prototypical objects are named first o Mervis et al: named objects high in prototypicality first when asked to list a category Prototypical objects are affected more by priming o Priming: presentation of one stimulus facilitates response to another usually followed closely in time o Rosch: demonstrated that prototypical members of a category are affected by a priming stimulus more than nonprototypical members. Participants first given the prime (eg. color green), then 2 seconds later saw two colours side by side and indicated by pressing a key as quickly as possible if colours were same or different. www.notesolution.com
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