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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 reading

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University of Toronto St. George
Gillian Rowe

PSY270 Lecture 10 Chapter 11 Language knowledge is an integral part of language we enter world without it and have to acquire understand before can produce. What is language? a system of communication using sounds or symbols that enables us to express our feelings, thoughts, ideas and experiences. Animals communication: lacks properties of human language. The creativity of human language possible to create new and unique sentences due to its structure o Hierarchical: consists of series of small components that can be combined into larger units. o Governed by rules: components can be arranged in certain ways Human ability that goes beyond fixed calls and signs of animals. Universality of language Sign language was invented as a form of communication bw deaf Everyone (with normal capacities) develops language and follows rules (may not be aware). Although grammar may be difficult, no trouble using language Language is universal across cultures (all cultures use language). Language development is similar across cultures. Start babbling around 7 months, few words after 12 months, multiword utterances at age 2. Languages are unique but the same o Use different words, sounds, rules o Words serve functions of nounsverbs, include system to make things negative, ask questions and refer to pastpresent Studying language Broca & Wernicke: identified areas in frontal and temporal lobes involved in understanding and producing language. Research shows that language is distributed across a large area of brain, not limited to frontaltemporal. Skinner: proposed language is learned through reinforcement. Chomsky: humans are programmed to acquire and use language. o Underlying basis of all languages is similar (despite differencesvariations of language) o Studying language is a way to study properties of mind disagreed with behaviourist idea that dismissed the mind as a valid topic of psychological study. o Argued against Skinner: children learn language and produce sentences they have never heard and were not reinforced. (e.g. I hate you Mommy) o Changed focus on psycholinguistics(psychological study of language) Psycholinguistics: goal is to discover psychological process on acquiring and processing language o Comprehension o Speech production o Representation (in mindbrain) o Acquisition Perceiving words, phonemes, and letters EXCLUDED FROM FINAL (but talked in lecture) knowledge of words stored in our lexicon Components of words Phonemes o Sounds. Shortest segment of speech that can change meaning of word. b, i, t o Number of phonemes varies across languages. Morphemes o Smallest units of language that have definable meaning or grammatical function. E.g. bed-room 1 www.notesolution.com
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