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Chapter 12

Chapter 12 reading

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Gillian Rowe

PSY270 Lecture 11 Chapter 12 Problem Solving * read the chapter summary Problem is difficult (obstacle between present state and goal), solution is not immediately obvious. Well-defined: usually have a correct answer, procedures that will lead to a solution Ill-defined: does not have one correct answer, path to solution is unclear. Gestalt approach: problem solving as representation and restructuring NOT IN FINAL, just read it refers the Gesalt psychologists (chapter 3) interested in o how people represent a problem in their mind o how solving a problem involves reorganization or restructuring of this representation believed success in solving problem depends on representation of problem o restructure problem insight. o Examples: the candle problem, two-string problem Participants restricted functions of object (functional fixedness) Mental set preconceived notion about how to approach a problem, determined by past experience and knowledge. Mental set influenced problem solving. Solving a problem often involves creating a new representation (restructuring) Modern research on problem solving: the information-processing approach Newell and Simons approach saw problems in terms io nfiinl stataend agoal state o Tower of Hanoi problem (3 discs stacked on left peg) Illustrates means-end analysis Problem solving is applicable to real life. Term Description
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