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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 reading

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University of Toronto St. George
Gillian Rowe

PSY270 Lecture 11 Chapter 13 Reasoning and Decision Making Decisions: making choices between alternatives Reasoning: process of drawing conclusions, and as the cognitive processes by which people start with information and come to conclusions that go beyond that information o Deductive: involves sequences of statements called syllogisms. E.g. All robins are birds. o Inductive: arrive at conclusions about what is probably true based on evidence. Conditional reasoning: the Wason four-card problem (COGLAB) Classic reasoning problem o 4 cards shown, e.g. E K 4 7 o Each card has letter on one side and a number on the other side. o Task is to indicate which cards you need to turn over to test this rule: If there is a vowel on one side, then there is an even number on the other side. Results: o 53% of participants indicated E must be turned over. (correct, falsify rule) o 46% indicated that 4 would be needed (in addition to E). (incorrect, tells us nothing about rule) o 4% got correct answer 7. Key: falsification principle test a rule, it is necessary to look for situations that would falsify the rule. Inductive reasoning: reaching conclusions from evidence premises based on observation generalization Nature of inductive reasoning conclusions are suggested, decide how strong argument is. Use past experiences to guide present behaviour (shortcuts), which take the form of heuristics. Heuristics rule of thumb that are likely to provide the correct answer to a problem. NOT FOOLPROOF. Availability heuristic states that events that are more easily remembered a
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