Textbook Notes (368,245)
Canada (161,733)
Psychology (2,971)
PSY270H1 (159)
Chapter 2

PSY270 Chapter 2.doc

3 Pages
Unlock Document

Christine Burton

Chapter 2: Cognitive Neuroscience Cognitive Neuroscience: study of the physiological basis of cognition Neurons: building blocks and transmission lines of the nervous system Neurons The Microstructure of the Brain: Neurons • Nerve net: network of continuously interconnected nerve fibres o Nerve net theory: provided a complex pathway for conducting signals uninterrupted through the network • Ramon y Cajal: investigated the nature of the nerve net o Use the Golgi stain – stained only some of the cells in a slice of brain tissue o Studied tissue from the brains of newborn animals, density of cells in newborn brain is small compared with adult brain o Neuron doctrine: individual cells transmit signals in the nervous system; these cells are not continuous with other cells as proposed by nerve net theory • Cajal’s conclusions about neurons: o In addition to neurons in the brain, there are also neurons that pick up information from the environment – receptors o For all neurons, there is a small gap between the end of the neuron’s axon and the dendrites or cell body of another neuron – synapse o Neurons form specific connections – neural circuits The Signals that travel in Neurons • Adrian recorded electrical signals from single neurons using microelectrodes o Key principle for understanding how electrical signals are recorded is that we are measuring the difference in charge between the recording and reference electrodes  Recording: connected to recording device and positioned near neuron  Reference: connected to reference and located outside of tissue o Action potential: electrical signal • Action potentials travel all the way down the axon without changing its size o Neurotransmitter: chemical that is released when signals reach end of axon • As pressure increased on the receptor, rate of nerve firing (number of action potentials) travelling down the axon increased o Intensity of a stimulus can be represented by the rate of nerve firing o Related to the magnitude of an experience Localization of Function Localization of function: functions are served by specific areas of the brain Cerebral cortex: layer of tissue about 3 mm thick that covers the brain Localization for Perception • Primary receiving areas: first areas of the cerebral cortex to receive signals from each of the senses o Temporal: auditory o Occipital: vision o Parietal: area for the skin senses o Frontal: receives signals from all of the senses, coordination of info received through two or more senses • Prosopagnosia: inability to recognize faces due to damage to a certain area in the temporal love on the lower right side of the brain • Brain imaging: create images that show which areas of the brain are activated as awake humans carry out cognitive tasks 1. PET: measures blood flow using radioactive tracers 2. Subtraction technique: measuring “control state” before stimulation is presented, and again while the stimulus is presented 3. fMRI: magnetic field is presented to the brain, haemoglobin molecules line up • Fusiform face area (FFA): location of the area in the human brain that responds to faces • Parahippocampal place area (PPA):activated by picture
More Less

Related notes for PSY270H1

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.