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1. PSY270 Intro.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Kristie Dukewich

PSY270 Ch.1 Intro to Cog Psy 9/30/2012 10:00:00 AM  Cognition: the mental processes that are involved in o Perception o Attention o Memory o Language o Problem solving o Reasoning o Making decisions  Begging’s of the study of cognitive psychology  Donder’s reaction time experiment 1868  Franciscus Donders  = mental chronometry (measuring how long a cognitive process takes) o EXPERIMENT = Simple reaction time vs. Choice reaction time o IDEA = Mental processes cannot be observed directly, but must be inferred from behaviour o Reaction time  The interval between presentation of a stimulus and a persons response to the stimulus o Simple reaction time  (light flashed in same place, participant pushed button when seeing it) o Choice reaction time  (light appeared in different places on screen, participants pushed button if light was on left, and other button if light was on right)  Stimulus (light) = mental response (perception of light) = behavioral response (push button). o Reaction time = time between presentation of stimulus and the behavioral response o Measuring behaviour to determine a property of the mind  Helmholtz’s Unconscious Inference 1858 o PRINCIPLE = Perception theory of unconscious inference  Some of our perceptions are the result of unconscious assumptions that we make about the environment  E.g. Rectangle images and how we see them  Ebbinghaus’s Memory Experiments 1885 o EXPERIMENT = Memorizing nonsense syllables DAX, QEH, LUH and ZIF o METHOD = Savings technique – Repeating the syllables out loud seeing if he could remember them without error o He then waited a period of time and relearned the list o Between initial learning and relearning it usually took fewer repetitions to relearn the list than it had taken him to initially learn it. o From this, he calculated a savings score formula: an info retention data curve  Savings = Initial repetitions – Relearning repetitions/ Initial receptions  X100 = converts the savings to a percentage o RESULT = Forgetting curve o Quantified memory for the first time o Measuring behaviour to determine a property of the mind  The first psychology laboratories 1879 o Wilhelm Wundt o THEORY = Structuralism – theoretical approach that dominated psych = our basic experience is determined by sensations o METHOD = Analytic introspection  The rise of behaviorism (1930’s – 1950’s) o John Watson – founder  Little Albert Experiment  Classical Cond
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