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Psychology (2,981)
PSY270H1 (159)
Chapter

Attention

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY270H1
Professor
Gillian Rowe
Semester
Winter

Description
Attention Is the process of concentrating on specific features of the environment thought or activities This leads to exclusion of other features of the environment and affects what we are aware of It involves engagement of the mind which in turn affects our experience Thus it affects perception memory language and problem solving Attention facilitates reactions to events and situations which can be influenced by various factors Simon effect It involves automatic and controlled processes There are three types of attention1Sustained vigilance2Selective auditory and visual3DividedSustained AttentionIs the process of continuously monitoring an environment in order to detect target signals change Examples of this would be life guards on duty and airtraffic control Selective AttentionIs the ability to focus on one message and ignore all others Early experiments showed that it is difficult to take in 2 messages at the same time This type of research was done on Dichotic Listening where a message is presented to left ear and another into the right Participants often could only attend one message while ignoring the other the unattended message They also tried trials where the attended message was repeated out loud as it was being given this is called shadowing In these trials when participants were asked about the unattended message they said they knew it was there and the gender of the speaker and the tone of voice but nothing moreCherrys experiment about the cocktail party phenomenon also proves the selective nature of our attentionEarly SelectionFitter ModelCreated by BroudbentIt is also known as the early selection modelIt describes humans as information processors and depicts the flow of information with a flow diagram Its purpose is to explain selective attention1 Sensory Memory holds incoming information for a second and then transferes it to the next stage 2 Filter Identifies attended message based on physical characteristics Lets only this kind of information go to the detector stage and filters everything else out3 Detector processes information to determine the high level characteristics like meaning Process everything it receives 4 ShortTerm Memory receives detectors output Holds it for about 1015sec then moves it to LTM if the information is rehearsed or controlled or dumps it out if it is not taken care 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 key to this theory is that filtering occurs before information is analyzed The left and right ears were considered separate channels at first and people were concerned about how information is taken in from these two channels under different conditionsSplitscan experiment Was done in order to find outIn this experiment letters were represented to the left and right ears Participants were asked to either a report the letters in any order or b asked to repeat the pair of letters in the order each was presented In the trials with task A participants reported all the letters they heard in 1 ear and then in the other researchers reasoned that this was because it was efficient to switch between channels at the end and not back and forth There was a high percentage of
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