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PSY270H1 (153)

Ch9 Textbook Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Christine Burton

CHAPTER 9 KNOWLEDGE concept a mental representation used for a variety of cognitive functionscategorization the processes by which things are placed into groupspointers of knowledge once you know something is in a category you know a lot of general things about itHow Are Objects Placed into Categories Why Definitions Dont Work for Categories definitional approach to categorization we can decide whether something is a memory of a category by determining whether a particular object meets the definition of the categoryproblem not all members of everyday categories have the same featuresfamily resemblance the idea that things in a particular category resemble one another in a number of waysThe Prototype Approach Finding the Average Caseprototype approach to categorization membership in a category is determined by comparing the object to a prototype that represents the categoryprototype a typical member of the categorynot an actual member of the category is an average representation of the categoryprototypicalityhigh prototypicality means that a category member closely resembles the category prototypelow prototypicality means that the category member doesnt closely resemble a typical member of the categoryPrototypical Objects have High Family ResemblanceRoschMervis 1975 had participants list as many characteristics and attributes that are common to a number of objectswhen an items characteristics have a large amount of overlap with the characteristics of many other items in a category means that the family resemblance of those items is highRoshMervis showed there was a strong relationship between family resemblance and prototypicalityitems high on prototypicality had high family resemblanceStatements about Prototypical Objects are Verified Rapidly Method Sentence Verification Techniqueparticipants are presented with statements and asked to answer yes if they think it is true no if they think it isnteg an apple is a fruit a pomegranate is a fruitSmith et al 1974 found that participants responded faster for objects high in prototypicalitytypicality effect ability to judge highly prototypical objects more rapidly
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