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Ch10 Textbook Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Christine Burton

CHAPTER 10 VISUAL IMAGERY visual imagery seeing in the absence of a visual stimulusmental imagery ability to recreate the sensory world in the absence of physical stimuliImagery in the History of PsychologyEarly Ideas about ImageryWundt proposed that images were one of the three basic elements of consciousness along with sensations and feelingsbecause images accompany thought studying images was a way of studying thinkingimageless thought debate thought is impossible without an imageFrancis Galton 1883 observed that people who had great difficulty forming visual images were still quite capable of thinkingintroduction of behaviouralism believed study of imagery as unproductive visual images are invisible to everyone except the person experiencing themImagery and the Cognitive Revolutiondevelopment of ways to measure behaviour that could be used to infer cognitive processes Method PairedAssociate Learningparticipants are presented with pairs of words during a study periodduring the test period they are presented with the first word from each pairtask is to recall the word that was paired with it during the study periodPaivio 1963 memory for pairs of concrete nouns that can be imaged is much better than memory for pairs of abstract nounsconceptual peg hypothesis concrete nouns create images that other words can hang ontoeg presenting boathat creates an image of a boat presenting boat later will bring back the boat image which provides a number of places hat can be placed in their mindShepardMetzler 1971 mental chronometry the amount of time needed to carry out various cognitive tasksmental rotation labthe time it took to decide the two views were the same object was directly related to how different the angles were between the two viewssuggested that imagery and perception may share the same mechanismsImagery and Perception Do they Share the Same MechanismsKosslyns Mental Scanning Experimentsmental scanning creating mental images and then scanning them in the mindhad participants memorize a picture of an objectthen create an image of that object in the mind and focus on one part of the object eg boat focusing on the anchorthen asked to look for another part of the boat and press the true button when they found this part false when they couldnt find it
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