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PSY270H1 (153)

Ch13 Textbook Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Christine Burton

CHAPTER 13 REASONING AND DECISION MAKING decisions making choices between alternativesreasoning the process of drawing conclusionsdeductive reasoning involves sequences of statements syllogismsinductive reasoning we arrive at conclusions about what is probably true based on evidencewe can make definite conclusions based on deductive reasoning and probably conclusions based on inductive reasoningDeductive Reasoning Syllogisms and Logica syllogisms includes two statements called premises followed by a third statement called a conclusioncategorical syllogisms the premises and conclusion describe the relation between two categories by using statements that begin with all no or someValidity and Truth in Syllogismsvalidity a syllogism is valid when its conclusion follows logically from its two premisesdepends on the form of the syllogism which determines whether the conclusion follows from the two premisestruth refers to the content of the premisesgood reasoning and truth are not the same thingConditional Syllogismshave two premises and a conclusionthe first premises has the form ifthenp is called the antecedent the if term q is the consequent the then termfirst premises if I study then Ill get a good gradeaffirming the antecedent I studiedconclusion therefore Ill get a good grade is valid 97 judged correctlydenying the consequent I didnt get a good gradeconclusion therefore I didnt study is valid 60affirming the consequent I got a good gradeconclusion therefore I studied is invalid 40denying the antecedent I didnt studyconclusion therefore I didnt get a good grade invalid 40Conditional Reasoning The Wason FourCard Problemfour cards are shown each has a letter on one side and a number on the othertask is to indicate which cards you would need to turn over to test the following ruleif there is a vowel on one side then there is an even number on the other side53 indicated that E must be turned over E K 4 746 indicated that 4 would also need to be turned over
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