Textbook Notes (363,082)
Canada (158,181)
Psychology (2,948)
PSY270H1 (153)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2

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University of Toronto St. George
Christine Burton

Chapter 2 From Neuron to Brain: Organization of the Nervous System Nervous system is basis for our ability to perceive, adapt to and interact with the world around us we perceive, process and then respond to information from the environment Neural Structure and Function Neurons individual cells in the nervous system, transmit electrical signals from one location to another in the nervous system o Greatest concentration of neurons is in the neocortex of the brain associated with complex cognition (~100, 000 neurons per cubic mm) o Neurons have 4 basic parts: Soma (cell body) contains nucleus of the cell, controllife centre Dendrite branches that RECEIVE information from other neurons Axon single axon, long thing tube that TRANSMIT electrical signals to the terminus (end) where signal can be transmitted to other neurons 2 basic axons myelinated or not myelinated, myelin fatty substance that surround some axons helps insulate and protect them from interference, also speeds up the conduction of information o Myelin is not distributed evenlycontinuously, it is broken into segments AKA Nodes of Ranvier small gaps in myelin serve to increase conduction speed even more Multiple sclerosis degeneration of myelin sheaths along axons impairment in balance and corrdination Terminal button - small knobs at the end of axons (they do not touch the dendrite of next neuron), there is a small gap = synapse o Signal transmission between neurons occurs when the terminal button release neurotransmitters at the synapse, neurotransmitters chemical messengers for transmission of information 3 types of chemical substances involved in neurotransmission: Monoamine neurotransmitters Amino-acid neurotransmitters Neuropeptides ** PAGE 38 for chart!!! Acetylcholine associated with memory functions, loss of acetylcholine with Alzheimers has been linked to memory impairment o Also play a role in sleep and arousal, when someone is awake increase the activity of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain and the brainstem Dopamine associated with attention and learning o Involved with motivation process (rewards & reinforcement) o Schizo high levels of dopamine, therefore use dopamine inhibitors o Parkinsons low levels of dopamine Serotonin role in eating behaviour and body-weight regulation o Also involved in aggression and regulation of impulsivity (drug that block serotonin will increase aggression) o Anorexia high levels of serotonin (= loss of appetite) Receptors and Drugs Receptors in the brain that normally are occupied by the standard neurotransmitters can be influenced by drugs When people stop using drugs, withdrawal symptoms may arise (narcotic dependence) the form of treatment differs for acute toxicity (damage done from particular overdose) vs. chronic toxicity (damage done by long term drug addiction) www.notesolution.com
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