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Psychology (2,948)
PSY270H1 (153)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5

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University of Toronto St. George
Christine Burton

Chapter 5: Memory: Models and Research Methods Memory: retain and draw on our past experiences to use that information in present o As a process, memory refers to dynamic mechanisms associated with storing, retaining, and retrieving information about past experience 3 common operations of memory: encoding, storage, retrieval o Encoding: transform sensory data into a form of mental representation o Storage: keep encoded information in memory o Retrieval: pull or use information stored in memory Tasks Used for Measuring Memory: Recall versus Recognition Tasks Recall: produce a fact, a word, or other item from memory ie. Fill in the blanks, essay questions Recognition: you select or otherwise identify an item as being one that you learned previously ie. MC true-false 3 main types of recall tasks: o Serial recall: recall items in exact order in which they were presented o Free recall: recall items in any order you choose o Cued recall (paired-associates recall): first shown items in pairs, but during recall you are cued with only one member or each pair and are asked to recall each mate Relearning: the number of trials it takes to learn once again items that were learned at some time in past o Rats demonstrated shorter learning times for motor movements they had previously learned Recognition memory usually much better than recall Recall tasks generally elicit deeper levels of information processing than recognition ones Implicit versus Explicit memory Tasks Explicit memory: participants engage in conscious recollection. Ie. Recall or recognize words, facts, pictures from particular prior set of items Implicit memory: use information but are not consciously aware that we are doing so. Ie. Reading a book Infants and older adults often tend to have relatively poor explicit memory but implicit memory that is comparable to young adults Priming: facilitation of your ability to utilize missing information In general, participants perform better when they have seen the word on recently presented list, although they have not been explicitly instructed to remember words from that list Cerebellum of brain seems to be centrally involved in procedural memory o Rotary-pursuit task requires participants to maintain contact between L-shaped stylus and small rotating disk. With same disk and speed, participants do well, with different diskspeed, do poorly o Mirror-tracing task, with practice, participants become quite efficient and accurate One of first and widely recognized models is process-dissociation model o Assumes that implicit and explicit memory both have role in virtually every response, only one task is needed to measure both processes Traditional Model of Memory 2 structures of memory by William James: o Primary: holds temporary information currently in use o Secondary: holds information permanently or at least for very long time Atkinson & Shiffrin proposed 3 memory stores: o Sensory store: capable of storing relatively limited amounts of information for very brief periods www.notesolution.com
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