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Psychology (2,948)
PSY270H1 (153)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8

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University of Toronto St. George
Christine Burton

Chapter 8: Representation and Organization of Knowledge in Memory Converging operations: the use of multiple approaches and techniques to address a problem Organization of Declarative Knowledge Concept: an idea about something that provides a means if understanding the world Category: a concept that functions to organize or point out aspects of equivalence among other concepts based on common features or similarity to a prototype Example: concept- fruit, category- apple Concepts and Categories Natural categories: groupings that occur naturally in the world. Ex. Birds, trees Artefact categories: groupings that are designed or invented by humans to serve particular purposes or functions. Ex. Automobiles and kitchen appliances The speed it takes to assign objects to categories seems to be about the same for natural and artefact categories Some categories referred to as ad hoc categories: categories that are formed with a particular purpose in mind. Ex. Things you need to write a paper Nominal kind: is the arbitrary assignment of a label to an entity that meets a certain set of prespecified conditions or rules ex. A widow is a woman whose husband is deceased Feature-Based Categories: A Defining View Classic view of conceptual categories involves disassembling a concept into a set of featural components o Components are singly necessary and jointly sufficient to define the category o Defining feature: necessary attribute Example, bachelor: unmarried, male, adult Feature-based view is common among linguists, makes categories of meaning appear so orderly
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