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PSY280H1 (40)
Chapter 1&2

chap1&2 textbook notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY280H1
Professor
Kristie Dukewich
Semester
Winter

Description
 Pointers to the lecture: o Don’t copy grey slides o “X refers to…” are definitions given to verbally o “just as a side note…” is just interesting stuff o researcher names mentioned verbally don’t need to know vs. researcher names mentioned on slides are required to known o Textbook materials are also required CH1: introduction to perception  Definition & backgrounds o The psychological approach o SENSATION = the ability to detect a stimulus, bottom up  The quantitative relationship between physical stimuli and the  Done w/o much thinking/conscious thought psychological experience of those stimuli o PERCEPTION = the act of giving meaning to a sensation, top down  Started by Gustav Fechner  The richer and more meaningful experience of sensation  PH1: relationships between physical stimulus parameters &  Easy to missing something you’re not looking for physiological responses o Only your own sensory experience is accessible to you  PH2: relationships between physiological processes &  Perception is a private experience psychological experience  Not directly measurable, only indirectly report  PP: Psychophysical approach measure relationship btwn stimulus o Mental life depends on sensation and perception (physics) and perception (psycho)  more sensation  more stuff perceived  richer mental life o Process:  Light energy (Stimulus) received by receptors  Light energy transformed into electrical energy at the receptors  Receptors sends information to the brain for further processing  Processing in brain may err, disregard certain information  Perception is the conscious experience of sensation o Perceivers can reliably estimate intensity  The same perceiver can report same or similar results across trails, days, etc. o Perception appears to be consistent across individuals  Ex. what color is a strawberry? Each individual may call red slightly differently  Approaches to the study of perception o 3 possible functions  JUST NOTICEABLE DIFFERENCE – the change in intensity  pain perception = exponential function between 25% “brighter” and 75% “brighter” (by convention)  low pressure not painful, increase until pass a threshold  JND varies as a function of reference intensity, JND  may plateau b/c at high levels ppl unable discern changes not a constant values, changes depending on  Brightness = logarithmic; line length = linear reference  Common psychophysical methods  JND is smaller for lower intensity, bigger for higher o Methods: thresholds intensity  ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD – minimum stimulus intensity necessary  Describe the relationship in standard language: when for a stimulus to be detached a light really bright, its hard to notice a difference  Point at which stimulus is detected 50% of the time  Weber’s Faction  Not the fully stimulus relationship, not how the stimulus fully experienced etc.  = JND  Ideally a step function  K = Weber Fraction  Method of limits  # trails, vary the intensity of stimulus  I = reference intensity o Start sub threshold and move up until ppl report o Methods: magnitude estimation perception and/or start super threshold and move  Relationship between perceived magnitude and stimulus down intensity  Method of adjustment  observers them selves adjust  Linear the intensity of a continuously generated stimulus  Exponential (response expansion) o Find the threshold themselves  Logarithmic (response compression)  Method of constant stimuli  researcher pick some  S.S Stevens (1957) constant intensity values spans range of detection  Steven’s Power Law o Plot out, CDF  find the point where P(intensity o P = perceived intensity detected) = 0.5  DIFFERENCES THRESHOLD (DL) – the smallest differences o K = constant between two stimuli that a person can detect o S = stimulus intensity  Started by Ernst Weber o n = exponent (slope of log), n = 1 linear, n > 1 o Ex. 1g vs. 2g and 101 vs. 102g exponential (not really), n < 1 logarithmic (not o Found smaller the d
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