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Chapter 3

Biopsychology Chapter 3.docx

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Chapter 3: Anatomy of the Nervous System Cells of the Nervous System Neurons Specialised for reception, conduction, and transmission of electrical signals Cell body Endoplasmic Reticulum Folded membranes in the cell body Rough areas help synthesise proteins Smooth areas help synthesise fats Cytoplasm Clear internal fluid of the cell Golgi complex Connected system of membranes that packages molecules in vesicles Mitochondria Sites of aerobic (oxygen-consuming) energy release Neuron cell membrane Composed of a lipid bilayer Channel proteins Allow certain molecules to pass Signal protein Transfer a signal to the inside of the neuron according to which molecules bind to them on the outside Types of neurons Multipolar (most neurons) Has more than two processes extending from its cell body Unipolar neuron Has one process extending from its body Bipolar neuron Has two processes extending from its body Interneurons Neurons with short or no axon body whose function is to integrate neural activity within a single brain structure, not to conduct signals from one structure to another Neurons in neuroanatomical structure In the CNS: Clusters of cell bodies = nuclei Bundles of axons = tracts In the PNS: Clusters of cell bodies = ganglia Bundles of axons = nerves Glial Cells Ogliodendrocytes glial cells with extensions that wrap around axons of some neurons in the CNS Constitutes one myelin segment Schwann cells are like ogliodendrocytes but in the PNS Constitutes many myelin segments, often with more than one axon Unlike ogliodendrocytes, these can guide axonal regeneration after damage (regrowth). This is why effective regeneration in mammals is restricted to the PNS Microglia Smaller than glia Respond to injury or disease by multiplying, engulfing cellular debris, and triggering inflammatory responses Astrocytes Largest glial cells and star-shaped Cover blood vessels that course through the brain and make contact with cell bodies Allow passage of some chemicals from the blood to the CNS and blocks others Neuroanatomical Techniques Staining
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