Textbook Notes (368,123)
Canada (161,661)
Psychology (2,971)
PSY309H1 (11)
Chapter 3

PSY309 - Chapter 3 notes

3 Pages
Unlock Document

John Kloppenbord

Chapter 3: Ethical Research M ILGRAM’SO BEDIENCEE XPERIMENT BELMONT REPORT - defined the principles and applications that have guided more detailed regulations and the APA Ethics Code - three basic ethical principles: beneficence, autonomy, justice - the associated applications of these principles: assessment of risks and benefits, informed consent, selection of subjects ASSESSMENT OF RISKS ANDBENEFITS - Beneficence – the need for research to maximize benefits and minimize any possible harmful effects of participation - in most decisions we make in life, we consider the relative risks/costs and benefits - in decisions about the ethics of research, we must calculate potential risks and benefits that are likely to result – Risk-Benefit Analysis - potential risks to the participants include: psychological/physical harm, loss of confidentiality - potential benefits may include: direct benefits (ie. educational benefit, a new skill) or material benefits (ie. money, gift, prize) - R ISKS IPSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH o Physical Harm  procedures that could cause physical harm to participants are rare but possible  some medical procedures fall into this category (ie. administering drugs such as alcohol/caffeine) o Stress  more common than physical stress  when stress is possible, all safeguards must be taken to help participants cope with stress  there is usually a debriefing session following the study to address any potential problems o Loss of Privacy and Confidentiality  researchers must take care to protect the privacy of individuals  Confidentiality becomes particularly important when studying topics such as sexual behaviour, divorce, family violence  in these cases responses must be completely anonymous – there should be no way to connect person’s identity to data  researcher must carefully plan ways of coding data, storing data and explaining the procedures to participants  in some cases risks with loss of confidentiality is so great researchers must apply for a Certificate of Confidentiality (U.S.)  another privacy issue concerns concealed observation of behaviour INFORMED C ONSENT - Autonomy (respect for persons) o The Belmont Report states that participants are treated as autonomous; they are capable of making deliberate decisions about whether to participate in research - Informed Consent – potential participants in a research project should be provided with all info that might influence their decision of whether to participate o therefore, research participants should be informed about the purposes of the study, the risks and benefits of participation, and their rights to refuse/ terminate participation in the study - INFORMED CONSENT FORM o contains the info that participants need to make their decision - A UTONOMY ISSUES o 1 concern - lack of autonomy (occurs when participant doesn’t have the ability to make a decision to voluntarily participate) o when minors are asked to participate, a written consent form signed by a parent/guardian is required in addition to agreement by the minor and this is called assent o 2ndconcern – coercion (is any procedure that limits an individual’s freedom to consent)  ie. a prof requiring students in a class to participate in a study in order to pass the course is applying considerable pressure on potential participants - INFORMATION ISSUE:W ITHHOLDINGINFORMATION AND DECEPTION o it’s generally acceptable to withhold info when the info would not affect the decision to participate and when the info will later be provided (usually in a debriefing session when the study is completed) o deception occurs when there is active misrepresentation of information o [Keman, Ortmann & Hertwig] believe that any type of deception is morally unacceptable; it is wrong to mislead ppl. in any way o the use of deception is believed to harm the reputation of the field - ISD ECEPTION M AJOR ETHICALPROBLEM INPSYCHOLOGICALRESEARCH? o there are three reasons why the use of deception has decreased (as seen in the Milgram study)  more researchers have become interested in cognitive variables rather than emotions  general level of awareness of ethical issues has led researchers to conduct studies in other ways  ethics committees at uni’s and colleges now review proposed research more carefully THE MPORTANCE OF D EBRIEFING - Debriefing – explanation given to participants at the end of their participation regarding the purposes of the research an
More Less

Related notes for PSY309H1

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.