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PSY311H1 (5)
Chapter 1

Psy 311 - Chapter 1, 2, 3, 8, 11

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Amanda Sherman

Chapter 1:  Seven important questions to ask when studying social development 1. How is social knowledge and competence acquired? 2. What underlines and promotes change over time? 3. What types of social influences are important? 4. What aspects of social development change as a function of the context of social interaction? 5. What differentiates normative and psychopathological development? 6. How do institutions promote healthy social development? 7. What is universal and culturally specific about social development?  Psychoanalytical theories o Freud, argued that human development is predictable and understandable o Emotions and thoughts as unconscious processes has a role in determining behavior o Freud‟s dynamic theory was that humans are driven by sexual and aggressive instincts and the desire to reduce stimulation (different from modern theories) o Reduce stimulation was disconfirmed because humans search for cognitive stimulation in order to understand the world o Id (instinct), ego (rationality) and superego (morality) was a model for social and moral development o Internalizing parental values was a catalyst for social development  Behaviorism o Theory based on observable and recordable behaviors o Human development is mainly influenced by emerging associations between external stimuli and observable responses (habits) o Reinforcement and punishment was introduced to +/- behaviors  Social Learning Theory o Bandura adapted learning principles to behaviorism  social learning o Children can learn novel social behaviors by attending to important others through modeling o Children will also observe the consequences of others in making their own decisions  Cognitive and social-cognitive developmental theories o Piaget wanted to study the origin of knowledge o Believed that children actively construct knowledge of the world through interactions and the reflections upon the interactions o Early social interactions allow children to develop social concepts and what is „fair‟ o Children‟s schema and templates for making social decisions change over 5-10 years o Social development is universal & the focus is on peer interaction not adult-child interaction  Cultural communication theory o Vygotsky was focused on problem solving, communication, cultural tools and role of peer tutoring in children‟s development o Thinking is active and cooperative process o „zone of proximal development‟ – time period from one point in development to the next in which children are most ready to learn and benefit from teaching o Identifying that point would help learning a lot o Mead suggested role playing as fundamental to social intelligence o Social looking glass: development of self-knowledge, asserting that we learn about ourselves by observing the effects that our behaviors have on others  Ethology and social-biological theories o Biological bases of human behavior derived from Darwin‟s theory of evolution o Lorenz focused on „biologically programmed‟ animal behavior that evolved based on naturalistic selection o Bowlby- theory of attachment o Parent-child relationship provide a model for future relationships outside the family Chapter 2:  Temperament: biologically based individual differences in child‟s reactivity and self-regulation  Thomas and Chess (1977) “goodness of fit” – match between children‟s temperament and the demands, expectation and opportunities of the environment  Empathy: emotional state that matches another person‟s emotional state; in early childhood is related to emergence of morality  Affective perspective-taking: children‟s ability to understand that others have emotional responses to experience and social interaction Temperament and Social Behavior in Childhood  Temperament are showing some of the „Big Five‟ factors of adult personality  Temperament varies on surgency, negative affectivity and effortful control  If children‟s experience in social situation can be seen to vary depending upon their temperament, then it will be likely also that the affective meaning of present, past and future events will be colored by their temperament  High negative Affectivity (punished for performing undesirable act)  more likely to inhibit future performances because aversive consequence outrides immediate reward of performing the act  Surgency: how outgoing you are, negative affectivity: neuroticism, effortful control: constraint  Results: surgency correlated positively with aggression and negatively with guilt/shame  Negative affectivity correlated positively with aggression, guilt/shame, help-seeking and negativity  Effortful control correlated positively with empathy and guilt/shame and negatively with aggression, help-seeking and negativity  Effortful control correlated negatively with both surgency and negative affectivity  Temperament is strongly implicated in socialization process  Least understood: effortful control can be most effective in social development Development of concern for other in children with behavior problems  Aggressive children act on their negative impulses without apparent attention to effects upon others  Girls show more concern for others since age of 2 through adolescence  Inverse relation between concern for others and antisocial behavior may increase with age  High heart rate was positively correlated with concerned responses  Authoritative parenting includes being warm, responsive and supportive, establishing guidelines for behavior and using reasoning in conjunction with controlled discipline  Authoritarianism centers on harsh, restrictive, punitive and inappropriately controlling parenting  Negative affect: extent to which parents feel and show anger, frustration and disappointment with their children  Parenting (authoritarian) is correlated with children‟s low concern for others in all settings and cultures  Maternal warmth predicted high levels of empathy  Maintenance of concern for others may function as a protective factor against the stability of externalizing problems  Prosocial as children is related to less disruptive behaviors and less crimes  Criminality was greatest to those high in aggression and low in prosocial behavior as a child  Hypothesis: 1. Concern for others should increase with age 2. Children with moderate and greater problems  develop more deficits in concerns for others 3. Children with more behavior problems  show more disregard to children with less problems 4. Sex differences 5. Should be individual stability and consistency in measures of concern within each age 6. Concern for others was expected to moderate development of externalizing behavior 7. Cardiac measures of children‟s autonomic arousal to sadness and distress from others  related to children‟s concern for others 8. Concern for others should correlate according to parenting style  Results: overall girls were more concerned than boys  Strength of concern decreased with age (T1 T2) but they figured no significant change between low and moderate rick, a significant drop for those at high risk  Children directed more disregard to their mothers than experimenters  High risk boys shows most disregard; moderate risk boys showed more disregard than high risk girls  Girls describe themselves as more empathic  High risk children describe themselves as significantly less empathic than moderate or low risk children  Mothers describe daughters as more empathic than sons  Mothers of low-risk children describe their children as significantly more interpersonally responsible than mothers of high or moderate risk children  Teachers described girls as more empathic; low risk children as more prosocial than moderate or high risk children  Moderate consistency across modes of assessment but limited stability over time  Disregard for others was not stable over time  Children showing more concern had fewer behavior problems 2 years later  Concerns of others moderated both stability and severity of children‟s externalizing problems only in the beginning of childhood, in middle of childhood it does not  Low concern for others = higher externalizing of problems (thinking its others fault not yours)  Mothers with relatively more authoritarian style had children more likely to show disregard for others and less likely to show concern  Children more empathic, impersonally responsible and prosocial are parents with predominantly authoritative style and less negative affect Sympathy through affective perspective taking and tis relation to prosocial behavior in toddlers  Can young children sympathize in absence of emotional cues  Sympathy situation: experiment with ripping the picture  Proactive situation: assess children‟s prosocial behavior towards victim in experiment  See if children can arrive at affective response without a emotional cue  Hypothesis: o Toddlers show more concern toward adult when harmed then not harmed o Toddlers would subsequently help victim more o Will be association between concern for and prosocial behavior toward victim o Will be gender effects  Results: children in harm condition looked to E1 significantly more quickly, for longer and more often  Girls in harm condition looks looker than girls in neutral condition whereas boys didn‟t vary in duration  Children showed more concern for E1 in harm than neutral condition with no difference in type of situation (possession or effort), age or gender  Children‟s concerned looks did not fade across all four harm conditions even with E1‟s lack of response  More 18 month than 2 year olds showed checking looks  More children helped or shared with E1 with harm condition, did not differ in age or gender  Children in harm condition had higher prosocial scores towards her  As early as 18 months, children can show concern for adult stranger who was in a hurtful situation but shows no emotions  Someone experiencing negative situations increases the likelihood of children helping that person by inducing sympathy linked to prosocial behavior  Still found a prominent correlation between sympathy and prosocial behavior Chapter 3:  Early relationships established between infants and primary caregivers have enduring implications for children‟s social behavior  Leads to more generalized expectation about self, others and world  Secure attachment relationship allows infant to feel safe and protected during ambiguous or threatening situations  Infants learn they can rely on parents to comfort them when they are feeling upset  Internal working models are cognitive representations of one self and other people used to interpret events and form expectations about the character of human relationships Nature of Child‟s Ties  John Bowlby o Studied maladjusted boys o Major disruptions in mother-child relationship are precursors of later psychopathology o Found that relationship with mother is of immediate importance not only for later functioning o Theories on child‟s tie to mother were secondary drives o Psychoanalytical – Freud, infant‟s relationship with mother emerges because she feeds infant o Bowlby realized animal studies seriously question this theory; Lorenz noticed geese become attached to mothers without feeding & Harlow observed times of stress rhesus monkeys preferred cloth mother than wire food mother o Bowlby thought it was evolutionary – biological drive for proximity  Ainsworth performed naturalistic observation on mothers and infants applying principles of attachment theory as a framework o Founded the stranger situation assessment  Some attachment behaviors (smiling) alerts mothers to child‟s interest in interaction, others terminate the current behavior (crying)  Evolutionary, babies who stayed close to their parent were less likely to be killed by predator therefore predisposition to seek parents in times of distress  Attachment is not for pleasure seeking since babies still get attached to abusive mothers  It is not a specific behavior but the intention behind the behavior (e.g. crawling vs. walking towards mother); with development the child gains more ways of achieving proximity and learns what is effective in certain circumstances  Attachment behavioral system enables individual to respond to flexibly to environmental changes while attempting to attain a goal  Children as wanting to maintain a certain proximity to their mother (like thermostat), separation becomes too great in distance or time, attachment system gets activated  Two factors that contribute to activation of attachment system: (1) conditions of child – illness, fatigue, hunger, pain (2) conditions of the environment – presence of threatening stimuli  Emotions is an important regulatory mechanism in attachment relationships  Bowlby believed that representational models and internal working models help individuals anticipate the future and make places thereby operating most efficiently  Secure attachment occurs when child has mental representation of attachment figure as available and responsive when needed  Activation of exploratory behavioral system and fear behavioral system relates to activation of the attachment system  Exploratory system gives survival advantages to child providing important info about workings of environment  The two systems allow child to be protected by attachment figures while child gradually learns about environment through exploration  Ainsworth describe: attachment figure is the secure base from which to explore  Sociable system associated with attachment theory  basic behavioral system leads us to seek to maintain proximity to conspecifics and evoked by those who are unfamiliar  Sociable system: organization of biologically based, survival-promoting tendency to be sociable with others individuals likely to spend at least of their time in the company of others  There is also the caregiving system, biologically programmed to care and protect children  This system enhances child‟s survival and reproductive fitness  The two systems work together to maintain comfortable degree of proximity (when child is activated, parents aren‟t and vice versa)  Attachment bond: bond that one individual has to another individual who is perceived as stronger and wiser (infant  mother)  Affectional bond: persistent, not transitory; involves specific person; emotionally significant; individual wishes to maintain proximity with the person; individual feels distress at involuntary separation from the person; individual seeks security and comfort in the relationship with the person  Secure: if you achieve security and insecure if you don‟t  Most behaviors can serve more than one behavioral system  Strength of attachment behavior should not be confused with strength of attachment bonds  Hinde, penetration is dimension of relationships that describes the centrality of one person to another‟s life, extent to which one penetrates a variety of aspects of other person‟s life  2 important propositions (1) attachment bonds reflect one feature of child‟s relationship to mother – component that deals with protection and security in times of stress (2) attachment bond cannot be presumed to exist even with attachment components  Most children form more than one attachment but number of attachment figure is not limitless and not all attachment figures are equivalent or interchangeable (an attachment hierarchy exists)  Biologically mother is principal attachment figure because (1) shares most biological connection (2) devotes body and resources for 9 months and nurses child after (3) fewer opportunities to product additional offspring than father and siblings  Infant‟s selection of principal attachment figure occurs over time and not immediately like animals because (1) mother may not survive childbirth (2) infant needs to be able to discern which individual is making intensive investment upon which he is so dependent Attachment security in infancy and early adulthood  Early attachment security was significantly related to AAI (adult) attachment security 20 years later  72% received the same classification  No difference between secure and insecure infants change in classification from infancy to early childhood  Infants whose mother reported one or more stressful life events were more likely to change attachment classification  Stressful life event significantly related to likelihood of secure infant because insecure in early adulthood  Stressful life events not significant in changes in insecure infants  Individual differences can be stable across significant por
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