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PSY313H1 (12)
Chapter 7

Psy aging- chapter 7.odt

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY313H1
Professor
Gillian Rowe
Semester
Fall

Description
Psychology aging- Chapter 7 Memory Three general steps in memory processing 1. encoding: is the process of getting information into the memory 2. storage: is the manner in which information is represented and kept in memory. 3. Retrieval: getting information back out of memory Most have examine encoding the retrieval as source of age differences Information processing revisited Working memory • older adults perform poorly on simple span task than younger adults • age differences is associated with active processing • Working memory: active processes and structure involve in holding information in mind and simultaneously using it to solve a problem, make a decision, or learn new information is referred • This area plays an active,critical and central role in encoding, storage and retrieval • sensory memory has an large capacity • working memory has an small capacity – this limits - it deals with information being processed right at this moment, it acts like a mental scratchpad - we have to direct our information or it will be tossed away • both young and middle age adults can perform more than one memory task with equal success but when older adults are presented with multiple task, they perform poorly - when it requires more effort, self initiation and strategic behaviour required in a memory task, the more likely there will be an age related differences in performance • working memory the key in understanding age differences • loss of the ability to hold items int he working memory may limit older adults cognitive function - basis for understanding language processing, production difficulties encounter in later life, reasoning and memory - e.g. Working memory is where action is processed, obtains its meaning and transform for longer storage • working memory relates to processing speed • older adults' reduced speed but other resources take into account – attention, encoding strategies • some evidence suggest age differences in working memory are not universal - related to information being used, type of task, gender, life experiences • there are evidence in differences in working memory related to performance on more complex cognition task • Enrichment ; professors show fewer declines than other occupation - preparing and giving lecture place great demands on working memory which is practised over many years results in better efficiency later in life • working memory is related to neurocognitive variables • working memory may not be an overall decline but an specific decline in certain ares Long term memory • Long term memory : is the ability to remember extensive amounts of information from a few sounds to a few hours to decades • it is divided into two types: conscious (explicit) memory and non conscious ( implicit) memory - both are divided into specific memory sub types based on how they operate • Explicit memory: the deliberate and conscious remembering of informatio nlearned and remembered at a specific time • Declarative memory (explicit : memory for facts and events, - can be divided into episodic and semantic memory • Episodic memory: is the general class of memory having to do with the conscious recollection of information from a specific event of time e.g. Learning the material in this course so that you will be able to reproduce it in the future and memorizing a speech for a play • Semantic memory: concern learning and remembering the meaning of words and concepts that are not tied to specific occurrences of events in time e.g. Recalling the definition of words to complete a puzzle, translating this paragraph from english to french . Understanding what the person is saying Alzhemier's disease show extreme deficits in episodic memory Age difference in episodic memory • recall: involved remembering information without hints or cues • e.g. Telling everything that you can remeber about a movie or an exam • recognition: selecting previously learned information from among several iteams • e.g completing multiple choice test, picking out the names of your high school friends Whats the capital of Zimbabwe? • Resulting from many studies conclude: adults over the age 60 do not do as well as younger adults on test of episodic memory recall - they omit more information, include more intrusion and repeat more previously recall items - age differences are large • older adults are more likely to accept near represented item sas having occured on the test, espeically if they share a conceptual meaning or perceptual resemblance to previously presented iteams • older adults ten to be less efficient spontaneously suing internal study strategies . Such as using imagery or putting items into categories in ones' mind to organize information during study • failure to use strategies such as association and repetition may be the result of age changes in speed of processing and associative memory • older adults are not successful in situations required them to devise an efficient way to acquire disorganized information especially when they will be expected to recall it later. There are ways to reduce differences between older and younger adults • 1. allowing older adults to practice or to perform a similar task before learning a new list improves performance • knowing what is one expected usually makes it easier to perform well • practice parallels similar improvements after practice on test of skills related to fluid intelligence • 2. using material that is more familiar to older adults also improves their performance • 3. use compensatory strategies to help themselves remember and their beliefs about memory can affect performance Age differences in semantic memory • some research have not found deficits in semantic memory • recent work – found some decline but not until after age 85 • semantic memory not surprisingly preserved in late adulthood, people can draw upon experience in word meaning or general world knowledge Retrieval of • episodic memories is based on cues to the original experience • semantic memory is retrieved on part of our world knowledge • age related decline in accessibility • older adults have more trouble retrieving a target word when prestend with a definition of the word and they tend to report more tip of the tongue exerpeiences • TOT (tip of the tongue) experience occurs when you try to retriveal name or words you fell you know the word but it is not quite accessible • e.g you are at a party and you see someone very familiar and you know the persons' name but
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