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PSY313H1 (12)
Chapter 9

Psy aging- chapter 9.odt

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University of Toronto St. George
Gillian Rowe

Chapter 9 – Social cognition Basic cognitive abilities and social cognition Processing capacity • to make non-biased social judgements depends on the cognitive demand accompanying those judgements those judgements • we make snap judgements but then we reconsider and evaluate possible circumstances to revise those initial judgements – this takes processing resources • if we are tired or busy we are unable to revisit initial judgements • older people may have lower levels of cognitive processing resources and less efficient - therefore affects social cognition Impression Formation • impression formation: the way people form and revise first impressions Figure 9.1- older adults, when new negative information was given they were willing to change the personal's impression from positive to negative but not the other way around – younger adults did not show this pattern – they were more concern with making sure the new information was consistent with their impression ; they modify the new information to their impression regardless if its positive or negative Older adults rely on experiences and social rules of behaviours when making interpretattion • older people have negativity bias • negativity bias: they do not corret their intial impression because negative information is more striking to them and affects them strongly Younger adults are concern with the situational consistency of the new information presented study – more positive traits were given than negative traits (Hess, Follet & McGee 1998) • younger adults were more likely to distinguish traits to the initial behaviour and those that did not • older adults are less likely than young adults to use detailed, specific information in forming impression – this overworks processing resources • age differences is due to deficiencies in working memory • also related to social and knowledge Knowledge Accessibility and Social judgements • Social knowledge: we are face with new situations, we draw on our previous experiences stored in memory or “” • e.g. If your attending your first class, you draw on social knowledge that tells you how to behave in a classroom – includes having stored representation of the social world or memories of the past events, knowing how to apl those memories to various situations and having easy access to the memories • available information in memory does not necessarily imply easy access to that social information - the degree it is stored determines the extent to which information guide social judgements or behaviours - the degree in easy access is determine by the strength of the information stored in memory • it is not easily accessible Accessibility of social knowledge can explain age related differences in social judgements 1. older adults rely on easily accessible social knowledge structure such as the initial impression is made about a person. - this limit cognitive resources to process detailed information presented after the initial impression is formed 2. shown in framing effect : occurs when information you just processed influences subsequent social judgements - involve experimental manipulation of the exposure or the context of presented information -e.g you were told it was going to be sunny - th situation is positively framed. • Processing capacity: the degree ot which processing resources are available during a cognitive task. • Manipulation of this kind of information making it more accessible can modify social judgements in both younger and older adults - in some circumstances older adults judgements show smaller effects than young adult's judgements – instead it reduce processing resources present older adults from accessing it Social knowledge structure and social benefits Stereotypes Content of stereotype • stereotypes: are a special type of social knowledge structure or social belief that represent organized prior knowledge about a group of people and that affects how we interpret new information - helps us to process information when we are engaged in social interaction • we use it to size up people when we first meet them • they help us to understand why people behave the way they do and guide us to our behaviours toward other people • older and younger adults share the shame stereotype – cognitive, personality and physical traits • cultural differences in stereotypes • participants from asia showed less in both positive and negative stereotype • older adults identify more categories that fit under the superordinate category older adults than younger and middle adults • figure 9.1 Golden anger: active, capable, sociable, independent, happy interesting Age Stereotype and perceptive • alot of negative stereotype in aging in memory competence • age based double standard: is operating when a person considers an older person's faiure in memory to be more serious than a memory failure observed in a young adult (dounble standard) • e.g. If a older person can't find their keys it is seen more of a problem. - especially when a older person judges - older adults judge more lenient toward memory failure in older adults • in other types of competence judgement older adults also display age based judgement- older adults have the same double standard study - younger and older participant applying for various volunteer positions • both young and old had more confidence in and would assign task or jobs to
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