Textbook Notes (368,566)
Canada (161,966)
Psychology (2,981)
PSY313H1 (12)
Chapter 8

Psy aging- chapter 8.odt

8 Pages
64 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSY313H1
Professor
Gillian Rowe
Semester
Winter

Description
Intelligence in everyday life • two groups agreed that intelligence consisted of three major clusters of related abilities: problem- solving ability, verbal ability and social competence • problem solving ability: consist to behaviours such as reasoning logically, identifying connections between ideas, seeing all aspect of problems and making good decisions • verbal ability includes such thing as speaking articulately, eradin with high comprehension and having good vocabulary • social competence includes behaviours such as accepting others for who they are, admitting mistakes, displaying interest in the world at large and being on time for appointments The big picture: a life span view • multidimensional: specifying many domains of intellectual ability. Some intellectual decline may be seen with age but that stability and growth in mental functioning also can be seen across adulthood. It emphasizes the role of intelligence in human adaptation and daily activity • multidirectionality: is the distinct patterns of change in abilities over the life span; these patterns are different for different abilities. - every knowledge accumulates over time and increases with age - cognitive mechanism show more declines into older age. • Plasticity: is the range of functioning within a person and the conditions under which a person's abilities can be modified within a specific age range . - a decline some skill may in part represent a lack of practice using them - older adults that are trained in cognitive abilities can perform at a higher level • Interindividual variability: acknowledges that adults differ in the direction of their intellectual developmental -within a given cohort or generation some people show longitudinal decline in specific abilities, whereas some people show stability of functioning in those same abilities - a curve representing typical or average change with age may not represent how the various individuals ina group function • Dual- component model of intellectual functioning (4 above) • two interrelated types of development processes ae postulated • the first component, called the mechanics of intelligence , concerns the neurophysiological architecture of the mind • intellectual change in the first component is greatest during childhood and adolescence, as we acquire the requisite skills to handle complex cognitive task – e.g. School • second component, pragmatic intelligence, concerns acquired bodies of knowledge available from and embedded within culture. - e.g. Everyday cognitive performance and human adaptation; includes: verbal knowledge , wisdom, practical problem solving • Pragmatic intellectual growth dominates adulthood • knowledge increases with age Research Approaches to intelligence • Psychometric approaches: measuring intelligence as performance on standardized test • Cognitive structural approach: which address the way in which people conceptualize and solve problems rather than score on test - emphasizes developmental changes in the modes and style of thinking - includes a search for post formal operations, the assessment of wisdom and studies of practical intelligence Developmental trends in psychometric intelligence • even with the long history of research on psychometric intelligence – we still not sure how intelligence changes with age • we can conclude that age is related to intellectual abilities without concluding that some things about growing older makes us gain or lose IQ points • age graded intellectual changes is also related to important variable such as health, activity level and educational achievements. Measuring intelligence • structure of intelligence is to picture it as a hierarchy • lowest level consist of individual test questions, the specific items that people answers on a intelligence test • these items can be organized into test at the second level • third level --Primary mental abilities: reflects relations between performance on intelligence tests. Relations between the primary mental abilities produce the : Secondary mental abilities at the fourth level • third order mental abilities represents relations between secondary mental abilities • finally general intelligence at the top refers to the relations between the third-order abilities • as we move up the hierarchy we are moving away from people's actual performance • each level represents a theoretical description of how things fit together • there is o test of primary abilities; represents theoretical relations between test, which in turn represents theoretical relations between actual performances • Factor: if the performance on one test is highly related to the performance on another, the abilities measured by the two test are interrelated • Its not an exact technique thought its a factor analysis is sophisticated statistical technique We examine two types of factors: Primary mental abilities : • intelligence is composed of several independent abilities :: • Thurstone examined 7 mental abilities: number, word fluency, verbal meaning, associative memory, reasoning, spatial orientation and perceptual speed. - this list has expand to 25 primary mental abilities • its hard to measure every primary abilities this is the subset: 1. numerical facility: the basic skill underlying one's mathematical reasoning 2. word fluency: how easily one can produce verbal description of things 3. verbal meaning: vocabulary ability 4. inductive reasoning: the ability to extrapolate from particular facts to general concepts 5. spatial orientation: the ability to reason in the three-dimensional world in which we live Two other information processing abilities were added to measure subsequent work 1. perceptual speed: the ability to rapidly and accurately find visual details and make comparison 1. verbal memory: the ability to store and recall meaningful language units Age related changes in primary abilities • Schaie (1996) proposes a hierarchical relation in intellectual abilities • information processing abilities such as perceptual speed and verbal memory are considered the most basic and are tied to neuropsychological functioning • mental abilities such as reasoning and numbers are products of acquired information • mental abilities underlie all meaningful activities of a person's daily life. Based on his 45 years worth of data (Schaie) • he conclude that people tend to improve in verbal meaning , spatial skills and reasoning until the 40s or early 60s • number and world fluency – peak earlier and begin a modest decline beginning in the 50s, with number fluency shows a steeper decline • word meaning declines the last in the 70s and 80s • with his data it favoured the continuity of primary mental abilities until very late life • peak ages of performance are still shifting with peaks in the 50s for inductive reasoning and spatial orientation and in the 60s for verbal ability and memory • apart from declines in spatial and numerical ability which begins in early midlife, significant declines in all other skills appear only in very old age-graded Do people decline in all the primary abilities tested or some of them? • People in their 60 show decline in one ability, very few people show decline on four or five abilities • even by age 88 only a extremely small number of people had declined in all five abilities • Significant decline in both types of intellectual abilities (pragmatic and mechanic) occur by the time people are in their 80s Secondary mental abilities • broad-ranging skills, each composed of several primary abilities • figure 8.1 - description of major second order mental abilities Main focus on two: fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence Fluid and crystallized intelligence • includes basic abilities we associate with intelligence, such as verbal comprehension, reasoning, integration, and concept formation • Fluid intelligence: consist of the abilities they make you a flexible and adaptive thinker, allow you to draw inferences and enable you to understand the relations between concepts independent of acquired knowledge and experience - reflects the ability you need to understand and respond to any situation but especially new ones and such as inductive reasoning, integration and abstract thinking • Ways to test fluid intelligence- mazes, puzzles and relations between shapes (they are usually timed and higher scores are associated with faster solution • Crystallized intelligence: is the knowledge you have acquired through life experiences and education in a particular culture - includes your breadth of knowledge, comprehension of communication, judgement, sophistication with information e.g. You ability to remember historical facts, definition of words, knowledge of literature and sports trivia information e.g. Jeopardy is testing contestant's crystallized intelligence • crystallized intelligence involves cultural knowledge, it partly on the quality of a person's underlying fluid intelligence e.g. Your vocabulary depends to some extent on how quickly you are able to make connections between new words you read and information already known • There no test that only tests fluid and crystallized individually • general rule --- test that minimize the role of acquired, cultural knowledge involve mainly fluid intelligence and vice versa • fluid and crystallized intelligence follow two different paths • fluid intelligence declines throughout adulthood – we do not know why it may be related to underlying changes in the brain from the accumulated effects of disease, injury or lack of practice • crystallized intelligence improves = we continue to add knowledge everyday what do these different development trends imply? 1. they indicate that thought learning continues across adulthood, it becomes more difficult the older one gets 2. intellectual development varies great deal from one set of skills to another (for fluid and crystallized) • individual differences in fluid intelligence remain nearly uniform over time, • individual difference in crystallized intelligence increase with age because maintaining one's crystallized intelligence depends on being in situations that require one to use it. • Crystallized intelligence provides rich knowledge base to draw on when material is somewhat famili
More Less

Related notes for PSY313H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit