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Respiratory system.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
William Huggon

Respiratory system lecture notes Functions of the respiratory system are: - Provide an extensive area for gas exchange between air and circulating blood - Moving air to and from the exchange surfaces of the lungs - Protecting respiratory surfaces from dehydration, temperature change, or other environmental variations and defending the respiratory system and other tissues from invasion by pathogens - Producing sounds involved in speaking, singing, and non-verbal communication. - Providing olfactory sensations to the CNS from the olfactory epithelium in the superior portions of the nasal cavity Acute bronchitis usually results from an infection such as cold or flu. Three main integrated steps involved in respiration: - Pulmonary ventilation or breathing - Gas diffusion across the respiratory membrane and across capillary walls - The transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide between alveolar capillaries and capillary beds in other tissues Boyle’s Law - Gases moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure - Gas pressure is inversely proportional to volume - i.e. if you decrease the volume of a gas, its pressure will rise - the relationship between pressure and volume is reciprocal, i.e. if you double th external pressure on a flexible contained the volume will drop by half - p=1/v Inhaling/exhaling pressure - intrapulmonary or intra alveolar pressure- measured inside the respiratory tract at the alveoli - during inhalation, intrapulmonary pressure is 759mmHg - During exhalation, intrapulmonary pressure is 761 mmHg - Intrapleural pressure- measured in space between parietal and visceral pleurae - Intrapleural pressure remains below atmospheric pressure throughout normal cycles of inhalation and exhalation - Tidal volume is the volume of air which you move into or out of your lungs during a single
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