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PSY321H1 (29)
Chapter 3

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY321H1
Professor
Simone Walker
Semester
Winter

Description
PSY321 Chapter 3 Humans Engage in Cultural Learning  Humans can get into another person’s mind, see things from that person’s point of view, understand the intentions of that person, and understand that the person understands our own intentions too  “Cultural learning” isn’t only learning from others but through others  Michael Tomasello studied chimps/orangutan’s and 2yo child o Child was more sophisticated, understood intentionality, social learning, and social communication on a much deeper level than the apes  B/c humans are intrinsically able to learn from one another and collaborate together as a group on a much more complex and larger scale than all other animals, only humans are capable to creating culture Enculturation and Socialization  Socialization is the process by which we learn and internalize the rules and patterns of the society in which we life o Occurs over a long time, involves learning and mastering societal norms, attitudes, values, and belief systems o This process starts the very first day of life o Refers to the actual process and mechanisms by which people learn the rules of society—what is said to whom and in which contexts  Enculturation – process by which youngsters learn and adopt the ways and manners of their specific culture o Refers to the products of the of the socialization process—the subjective, underlying, psychological aspects of culture that become internalized through development  Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory of human development (PAGE 66) o Microsystem – immediate surroundings  Family, school, peer group o Mesosystem – linkages b/w Microsystems  b/w family and school o Exosystem – context that indirectly affects children  Parent’s workplace o Macrosystem  Culture, religion, society o Chronosystem – influence of time and history on the other systems  Super and Harkness’ development niche o Physical and social setting o Customs of child care and child rearing o Psychology of caregivers Culture, Parenting, and Families PSY321  Most important microsystem to a child’s development is the family  Margaret Mead proposed that by observing parents, we are observing the essence of culture Whiting and Whiting’s Six Cultures Study  Collected field data in Mexico, India, Kenya, USA, Okinawa, and the Philippines  Major focus was to thoroughly examine child rearing and children’s behaviour in these varied cultural contexts  Researches documented how the natural environment shaped how households were structured, which in turn shaped how parents raised their children to fit into that particular society  Woman’s work roles contributed greatly to the survival base of they family— such as in sub-Saharan Africa where women were the major food providers—the children learned to share in family responsibilities and scored low on dependence (e.g. seeking comfort and support, seeking help and info, seeking approval, praise or attention  In contrast, in cultures in which women weren’t expected to substantially contribute to the survival of the family—such as for high-caste families in Khalapur, India—the children scored high on dependence  The study clearly demonstrated that variations in the natural and cultural environment were linked to variations in child-rearing patterns and this, in turn, was liked to children’s behaviours and personalities Diversity in Parenting as a Function of Economics  Parenting and child rearing often occur in very diff economic conditions in diff countries and cultures, and even w/in one culture  If society has a high rate of infant mortality, parenting efforts may concentrate on meeting basic physical needs  LeVine theorized that the caregiving environment reflects a set of goals that are ordered in importance 1. First is physical health and survival 2. The promotion of behaviours that will lead to self-sufficiency 3. The behaviours that promote other cultural values, such as prestige Parenting Goals and Beliefs  Parenting goals provide the motivation and framework for what parents think is the best way to raise their children  Germany: an important goal of parenting is to raise children who are autonomous o During infancy, parents recognize and emphasize that their child is a separate person w/ unique thoughts, wishes, desires, and needs o Talked to infant about intentions, thoughts, emotions, and needs PSY321 o More likely than Dehli mothers to focus on their infants’ attention to objects in face-to-face interactions  India: an important goal of parenting is to raise children who are autonomous, but also closely interdependent w/ other people, especially the family o During infancy, parents emphasize physical contact, emotional closeness, and indulgence o Emphasized relatedness by talking to their infant about other people, the social context, social regulations, and how the child was acting together w/ someone else more so than Berlin mothers  Harkness and Super argue that parental ethnotheories, or parental cultural belief systems serve as a basis for guiding parenting practices that structure children’s daily lives o Study asking American and Dutch parents to keep a dairy of what they do with their children  American parents hold an ethnotheory about the importance of spending special time w/ their children  Talked extensively about creating time alone w/ their child in an activity (usually outside the home) that was focused on primarily on attending to the needs of that particular child  Dutch parents hold an ethnotheory of spending family time w/ their children  Talked extensively about the importance of spending time together as a family, such as sitting down for dinner every night Global Parenting Styles  Baumrind (1971) identified 3 general patterns of parenting o Authoritarian parents  Expect unquestioned obedience and view the child as needing to be controlled  Low on warmth and responsiveness t
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