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PSY322H1 (19)
Chapter 5

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY322H1
Professor
William Huggon
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 5: Old-Fashioned vs. Modern Prejudice Are Low-Prejudice People Really Low-Prejudice? - Problems with the adjective-checklist procedure of Katz & Braly: 1. Subjects were predominantly White, upper-class males  limited generalizability 2. Requires the subjects to actively thinking about whether a trait “fits” into their schema for the group in question  BUT stereotypes are activated automatically  Results using the checklist method may provide stereotypes that are more a function of the words presented on a list than of the schematic content of the respondents’ stereotypes - Ehrilich & Rinehart (1965): administered Katz & Braly adjective checklist to half of the subjects and ask the other half to simply list the words, traits, and characteristics they needed to describe the group in question  The words used in the open-ended method ≠ words checked in the checklist - Allen et al.: expanded the open-ended method to include values assigned to the words generated  values analyzed = degree of favourability/unfavouribility of the target (adjective-generalization technique) - Kat & Braly measure personal beliefs (or willingness to publicly state those beliefs) about the truth of the stereotype?  Devine & Elliot (1995): important to distinguish between personal beliefs about stereotypes and knowledge about the stereotypes  Caucasians’ responses indicate a high degree of negativity in the traits associated with African Americans when asked about their knowledge (not personal beliefs) about the stereotypes of African Americans - Stereotypes have not changed over the last century, but the form in which they are expressed has changed Contemporary Theories of Prejudice: - Symbolic and modern racism are found primarily in political conservatives, aversive racism is associated with liberals - Agreements between the three:  Negative racial attitudes are acquired early in childhood (primarily through parental attitudes)  basis of anti-Black affect beneath egalitarian beliefs  Because Whites’ negative affect toward Blacks manifests itself subtly (opposition to social programs & voting behaviour aimed at bringing more Blacks into society), many may have little awareness of their own negative feelings toward Blacks  Racial ambivalence: learn stereotypes associated with various groups and the feelings of negative affect attached to them but society also teaches them equality, freedom, nondiscrimination, and values that embody the Protestant work ethic (hard work, independence, self-sufficiency) ambivalence  Stronger their ambivalence, the more inconsistent their behaviour will be  Context determines whether negative attitudes toward Blacks may be displayed - Are they really identifying distinct forms of racism or are they simply relabeling old-fashioned racism? Criticisms: Modern racism is not Some Whites are conflicted between their anti-Black feelings conceptually distinct from and their beliefs that racism and old-fashioned racism discrimination are wrong Beliefs: Modern Racism 1. Discrimination is a thing of the past (McConahay) 2. African Americans are too pushy 3. The demands of African Americans are unfair Criticisms: 1. Ill-defined concept 4.. African Americans' gains are undeserved and unfair 2. Other explanations Do not consider themselved to be can easily explain racists Whites’ opposition to 1. Racism = open hostility social programs 2. Disguised subtle negative feelings 3. Does not appear to be a distinct concept from A blend of anti-Black affect and old-fashioned racism traditional American moral values embodies in the Protestant Ethic Resist changing the racial status Symbolic Racism quo in all areas of life (Kinder & Sears) (Blacks violate traditional Major Theories of American values - grounded in Contemporary Forms of "Black individualism") Prejudice and Racism Have no problems with others groups if they adhere to traditional American values (Unlikely, perception tainted by prejudice) Whites who possess racist beliefs and feelings alongside strong egalitarian values Underlying biases may be expressed as ingroup favouritism, rather than outgroup derogation Aversive Racism (Gaertner & Dovidio) Experience more subtle feelings of discomfort, uneasiness, disgust, and sometimes fear in the presence of Blacks When they could rationalize their decision to not help with reasons not related to race, Whites gave less help to Blacks Measures of Stereotyping and Prejudice Measuring Attitudes Measures Pros Cons Self-Report - One can obtain a large 1. Restricted to the response alternatives provided Questionnaire volume of attitude data on the questionnaire (UNLESS it is a from lots of people very free-response, open-answer format) quickly 2. People do not always provide their true attitudes  sensitive nature of an issue, social desirability (the tendency to present oneself in a positive light) Solutions:
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