Textbook Notes (362,879)
Canada (158,081)
Psychology (2,948)
PSY322H1 (19)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Notes.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
William Huggon

Chapter 1: Intro to the Study of Stereotyping & Prejudice STEREOTYPE  Stereotype: a set of beliefs about the personal attributes of a group of people; generalization of a group; more specific and within a schema  Can tell us what social info is important to perceive/disregard things in our env.  Stereotype varies from positive to negative and neutral  Schema: hierarchically organized, cognitive structure representing knowledge about a concept or type of stimulus, its attributes and the relations b/w these attributes  Intergroup attitude composed of cognition, affect & behavior  Stereotype can be seen as the cognitive portion of an intergroup attitude - Attitude: general evaluation of an obj. Can be good-bad - Discrimination: negative behavior directed toward an individual based on their membership in a group PREJUDICE  Prejudice: biased evaluation (positive/negative) of a group, based on real/imagined characteristics of group members  Can be the affective portion of an intergroup of an intergroup attitude  Appraisal: set of cognitions that are attached to a specific emotion  Prejudice & attitude have a strong relationship  Because of cognitive dissonance theory, our beliefs (stereotypes) about a group will be consistent with our attitudes (or prejudice) towards that group EARLY PERSPTIVES IN STEREOTYPING RESEARCH  Research focussed on various attitude measurement techniques – but attitude doesn’t necessarily predict behavior  There may be individual diffs in stereotyping  Some are more easily persuaded than others  Not all frustration leads to aggression (or prejudice); and not all prejudice is caused by frustration  Some may have prejudiced personalities  Prejudice may arise from perceived-group threat, perception that a member of an outgroup impeded one’s goals so posing a threat to one’s ingroup  Realistic-conflict theory: states that prejudice & stereotyping arise from competition b/w groups for scarce, valued resources SOCIAL-COGNITION REVOLUTION/ SOCIAL-COGNITION VIEW  Cognitive-Consistency Theories:  Cognitive dissonance theory: people are motivated to maintain consistency b/w their cognitions & behaviors to relieve dissonance (physiological state) - However, this theory does not account for cases when people are inconsistent with their attitudes & behavior  Attribution Theory  We create theories of the causes of others’ behavior – the way think about the stimulus determines our reactions to it  Categorization is a heuristic freeing up our mental capacity  “basic”/ “primitive” categories: categories into which people are grouped automatically upon perception – race, gender, age  Diffs b/w objs & people, there are multiple ways to categorize a person  Categorizing people makes it easy to develop stereotypes  Cognitive miser  People embrace efficiency over accuracy in their perceptions of the social world  Motivation  Cognitive-motivational approach: elicits needs to view one’s ingroups positively relative to one’s outgroups  Motivation: impeteus to do some behavior/or avoid doing behavior, and to keep doing that in order to meet goals Side note: wealth of literature on prejudice/stereotype on African-Americans Chapter 2: Origin and Maintenance of Stereotypes and Prejudice FORMATION OF STEREOTYPES  Human brain seems to almost automatically classify/categorize similar obj in environment – stereotypes are natural consequence of cognition  Why do we categorize?  Humans have limited-capacity cognitive system that can’t simultaneously process al available info in our social environment, thus we use categorization to help us  Types of categorization  Basic categories: race, gender, age – most immediate/obvious features of an individual, hold much info about social behavior b/w those in diff groups – these categorization of individuals can become automatic and unconscious  Some don’t think stereotypes are automatic, but rather requires individuals to make categorization on salient dimensions (job, age, etc) and depnds on the perceiver’s motives, cognitions, affect  Ingroups: groups we belong to Outgroups: groups to which we do not belong  We think of individuals in outgroups to be all alike (outgroup homogeneity), while our ingroup members to be unique (ingroup bias/ favoritism) - This simplifies our social env by categorizing others in that way and we enhance our self-concept by not thinking we’re homogeneous - Negative info doesn’t necessarily get attached to outgroups, but outgroups are seen as homogeneous so greater likelihood for perceivers to use stereotype labels to process info  leading to outgroup derogation and discrimination *(Perdue) – priming words such as (us, we, our) RT to (+) descriptors were faster  Even ingroup favoritism exists in minimal groups (groups formed on arbitrary/random criteria) - Research showed that some groups may actually display outgroup favoritism (i.e. – low status groups)  Social learning may play a role in the development of stereotyped attitudes and prejudice  *(Wood) Children who had more interracial contact = less amt. of stereotyping and prejudice - Probs: no data on age of contact, Qs don’t assess nature of contact and the potential of contact  Children learn prejudiced attitudes and stereotypes about others - (Allport) we directly learn through teachings of our parents/family members or “caught” in a family environment  Stereotypes can influence cognition on children - Majority groups had + view of ingroup, and – view of outgroup, minority group held more + views of the majority gr
More Less

Related notes for PSY322H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.