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PSY322H1 (19)
Chapter 1

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY322H1
Professor
William Huggon
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 1: Introduction The importance of studying prejudice and stereotype: - A need to understand the negative influence such thinking has on the thoughts, feelings, and behaviour - How they relate to the targets of their prejudice - Such negative attitudes form the basis for subsequent negative intergroup behaviour Defining Stereotyping: - Brigham (1971): “a generalization about a … group concerning a trait attribution, which is considered to be unjustified by an observer”  But any generalization about a group whether an observer believes it is justified or not  Synonymous with the question of the accuracy of a stereotype  controversial - Hamilton & Trolier (1986): “a cognitive structure that contains the perceiver’s knowledge, beliefs, and expectations about a human group”  Too broad  Sounds more like the definition of a schema (a cognitive structure that represents knowledge about a concept or type of stimulus including its attributes and the relations among those attributes) - Ashmore & Del Boca (1981): “A set of beliefs about the personal attributes of a group of people” - Not regarded as good or bad, merely generalizations about a group Cultural and Individual Stereotypes: Individual Stereotype - The beliefs held by an individual about the Cultural Steretype - Shared or community- characteristics of a group - Measures in which the wide patterns of belief - Adjective rating scales respondent's answers are restricted to the stereotype - The focus of early content choices offered by thinking the measure - The focus of contemporary research Affective Prejudice Behavioural Discrimination Attitude Cognitive Stereotype Intergroup Defining Prejudice: - An evaluation, either positive or negative, toward a stimulus Prejudice as Negative Affect - Gardner (1994): “a negative evaluation of another stimulus”  But an evaluation = attitude  controversial - Allport (1954): “an antipathy [intense dislike] based upon a faulty and inflexible generalization. It may be felt or expressed. It may be directed toward a group as a whole, or toward an individual because he is a member of that group”  Corresponds with the traditional view of an intergroup attitude as composed of cognition, affect, and behaviour (prejudice = affective) Criticisms:  Focus on the negative affect toward to group  limits the definition because prejudice can also refer to positive prejudice in favour of one’s ingroup Prejudice as an Attitude - Strangor, Sullivan, & Ford (1991): the best predictor of negative outgroup prejudice is not negative feeligns about the out group but, rather, a lack of positive emotions - Brewer (1998); Pettigrew & Meertens (1995): stronger forms of prejudice are more likely to be based on strong negative emotions whereas more subtle types of prejudice may be based on an absence of positive feelings about the outgroup - Jackson et al. (1996): affect and behaviour were the strongest predictors of group attitudes; the quality of an intergroup interaction therefore is most dependent on “ how good people feel, not how well they think of group members” - Eagly & Diekman (2005): prejudice should be regarded as an “attitude-in-context”  Prejudice depends on the match (or lack thereof) between the social role into which the stereotype individual is trying to fit and the beliefs of the perceiver about the attributes that are required for success in that role  Prejudice is most likely to be displayed toward a disadvantaged group when that group tries to move into roles for which they are believed by the majority group to be unqualified Criticisms:  Some asserts that an attitude (or evaluation) is not the same as affect  Devine (1995): the notion that prejudice has an affective, cognitive, and behavioural component is problematic because the three components are not always consistent - Devine (1989): low-prejudice individuals know about stereotypes of their outgroups - LaPiere (1934): people’s expressed attitudes ≠ behaviour toward the outgroup Prejudice as a “Social Emotion” - Self-categorization theory (Turner): people view themselves as a member of a social category or group  Intergroup interactions will make salient particular group categorizations, depending on the nature of the group interaction  These self-categorizations tend to be strongly linked to one’s self-identity - Appraisal theory (Smith):  Appraisal: a set of cognitions that are attached to a specific emotion  Emotion is triggered by an assessment of the adaptive significance and self-relevance of the people and events in one’s environment  Appraisals invariably involve self, because they have relevance to one’s goals in some fashion  Two key differences that make this a very unique and useful model: - He says that it is too vague to say that prejudice is a positive or negative feeling about another group  our emotional reactions to other groups are quite specific - Prejudiced people can dislike the group as a whole but have genuinely positive attitudes and affect toward a specific member of that group - Subtyping: the prejudiced individual maintains a negative affect toward the group but creates a separate category for specific members  allows stereotypes to persist  How we react to any given outgroup member depends on: - What self-category is salient for us at that moment - In what context the interaction occurs - How that person helps or hinders our movement toward salient personal or group goals at that time OVERVIEW: - Conceptualizing prejudice as an attitude allows us to measure them  Most commonly measured by standardized self-reports - Prejudice:  Occurs between groups  Involved an evaluation (positive or negative of a group)  Is a biased perception of a group  Is based on the real or imagined characteristics of the group  A biased evaluation of a group, based on real or imagined characteristics of the group members The Link between Stereotyping and Prejudice: - Balance theory (Heider): one’s attitudes, behaviour, and evaluation (and affect) toward another person should be cognitively consistent, or else one experiences a state of “imbalance,” which is an aversive state of “cognitive arousal.”  Festinger (1957) called this “cognitive dissonance”  In this model, the beliefs (stereotypes) about the group would always be consistent with one’s attitudes (or prejudice) toward the group - Wicker (1969): there was virtually no evidence that people have stable attitudes that guide their behaviour  Confound: examined the relation between attitudes and single acts - Fishbein & Ajzen (1975): BUT actions are multiply determined by a number of other factors besides attitudes  the relationship between an attitude and subsequent attitude-relevant behaviour is much stronger if one “aggregates” multiple behaviours into a single behaviour measure - Brigham (1971): the relationship between stereotypes of a group and behaviour toward that group was quite weak  Dovido et al. (1996): Brigham reached that conclusion based on an imprecise consideration of the methodological variations between all the studies he reviewed; Dovido found that stereotyping and prejudice were strongly related Early Perspectives in Stereotyping Research: Early 1900s - Kats & Braly (1933): investigated the content of the stereotypes that Whites had regarding 10 different ethnic groups - Research was focusing on refining ways to assess the way people evaluated their world  Beliefs that attitudes predict and are related to subsequent attitude-relevant behaviour 1930s – 1950s - To examine the factors that lead individuals to stereotype others  What enduring personality characteristics or motivations would cause one person to stereotype other people - Hovland et al. (1953): persuasion messages were more likely to be successful when directed toward a certain type of audience (less educated, distracted, lower in self-esteem tended to be more
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