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PSY323H1 (2)

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Dax Urbszat

Chapter 81Menstruation positivenegativeMoodsome studies find mood fluctuations across the menstrual cycle but there is a lot of individual variation among women and among studieswomens moods are not more variable than mensenvironmental and social variables account for more variability in mood than does menstrual cycle phaseBehaviorPerformancewomen believe menstrual symptoms interfere with their performancemost studies show no impairment of performance associated with particular menstrual cycle phasessome researchers have found small variations in verbal articulation and visualspatial and fine motor skills tasks across the menstrual cycle These variations are small in comparison to individual variations among womenSensation and perceptionsome researchers have found cyclic fluctuations in sensitivity to certain visual olfactory and pain stimuliconclusions are hampered by a variety of methodological issues 2Cultural differences how we can helpSocial expectations and the menstrual cyclemothers are the main source of information for girls at menarche and much of that information is negativewestern cultural stereotypes of menstruation as a time of negative emotionality are widely held by both women and menexpectations affect womens symptoms for example women who are tricked into believing they are premenstrual report more typical premenstrual symptomsa womans belief in the phenomenon of menstrual distress is related to her likelihood of experiencing such distress women who say they usually experience menstrual distress remember their last menstrual period as more distressing than they reported at the time3MalesMale Pubertythe onset of puberty occurs about 2 years later for boys than for girlsin both sexes the physical changes of adolescence are triggered by large amount of hormone releaseboth sexes experience a growth spurt and develop secondary sex characteristicsjust as girls may be shocked and upset by menstruation when they are unprepared boys may be frightened by their first experience of ejaculationone study shows that boys are often unprepared for their first experience of ejaculation but that the lack of preparation is not necessarily associated with a negative reaction to the event4Menopause positivenegativeMenopause the cessation of a womans menstrual periods during middle ageas estrogen levels fall the woman may experience a number of physical changesthe most common symptoms attributed to menopause are hot flashes vaginal dryness urinary problems and bone thinning there is great cultural variation in the prevalence of hot flash symptom Among Japanese women there is no specific term for itmedical model of menopause focuses on debilitating physical symptoms and implies that the only whats for women to prevent the inevitable downhill slide are estrogen replacement therapynon medical model of menopause implies that menopause is a natural development process that signals a life transition in much the same way as puberty does The focus is not on deficiency and artificially maintaining a particular hormonal state but rather on viewing menopause as an inevitable life stage associated with new challenges and freedomsattitudes toward menopause are important because they may mediate a womans experience and behaviornegative attitudes among premenopausal women have been found to predict reported distress at the time of menopause
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