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Chapter 2

PSY333 - Chapter 2.docx

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Nevena Simic

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PSY333 – Health Psychology Chapter 2 – The Systems of the Body  The nervous system is a complex network of interconnected nerve fibers that functions to regulate many important bodily functions o Made up of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system o CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord o The rest of the nerves in the body, including those that connect to the brain and spinal cord, constitute the PNS o The PNS is made up of the somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system o Somatic nervous system is the voluntary nervous system that connect nerve fibers to voluntary muscles and provides the brain with feedback in the form of sensory information about voluntary movement o Autonomic, or involuntary, connects the CNS with all internal organs over which people do not customarily have control  Regulation of the autonomic nervous system occurs via the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system  Sympathetic nervous system prepares the body to respond to emergencies; strong emotions; and strenuous activity (especially stress) o Because it’s concerned with the mobilization and exertion of energy, it’s called a catabolic system  Parasympathetic nervous system controls activities of organs under normal circumstances and acts incompatible to the sympathetic nervous system  when emergency passes, it restores the body to a normal state o Common during digestion; can lead to relaxation and drowsiness o Because it’s concerned with conservation of body energy, it’s called an anabolic system  Brain receives afferent (sensory) impulses from the peripheral nerve endings and sends efferent (motor) impulses to the extremities and to internal organs to carry out necessary movement  Brain consists of 3 sections: hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain o Hindbrain has 3 parts: medulla, pons, and cerebellum o The medulla receives information about the rate at which the heart is contracting, and speeds up or slows down the heart rate as required; also receives information about blood pressure, CO2 in the blood and oxygen in the body to regulate blood vessels and breathing rate o The pons serve as a link between the hindbrain and the midbrain; also helps control respiration o The cerebellum coordinates voluntary muscle movement, the maintenance of balance and equilibrium, and the maintenance of muscle tone and posture o Midbrain is the major pathway for sensory and motor impulses moving between forebrain and hindbrain, also responsible for the coordination of visual and auditory reflexes PSY333 – Health Psychology o Forebrain has 2 main sections: diencephalon and telencephalon o Diencephalon is composed of the thalamus (involved in the recognition of sensory stimuli and the relay of sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex) and the hypothalamus (regulates the centers in the medulla that control cardiac functioning, blood pressure, and respiration; also responsible for regulating water balance in the body and appetites, including hunger and sexual desire o Telencephalon composed of 2 hemispheres: left and right o Cerebral cortex is the largest portion of the brain involved in higher order intelligence, memory, and personality  Sensory impul
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