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Chapter 11

Chapter 11.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY341H1
Professor
Lauren Hetherington
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 11- Communication and Learning Disorders  Disorders usually affect only certain limited aspects of learning, and rarely are severe enough to impair the pursuit of a normal life  Changed dramatically over last 30 years—used to be that it was poor motivation or instruction DEFINITIONS AND HISTORY  Learning disability: general term for learning problems that occur in the absence of other obvious conditions, such as mental retardation or brain damage  How they take in, retain or express information  Hidden handicap and often undetected in children  Now recognize that while it is challenging it doesn’t have to be a handicap  Main characteristic cshared by all children with learning disabiliites is not performaing upto their expected level in school  Otherwise, symptoms vary widely  Learning disability – significant problmes in mastering on of more of the following skills – listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning and mathematics  Aspects of multiple intelligence  Linguistic: sensitivity to the meaning, function and grammatical rules of words, as in writing an essay  Musical: sensitivity and creatitvity in hearing and manipulating tones, rhythms, musical patters, pitch and timbre  Logical/mathematic: ability to solve problems and see abstract relationships  Spatial: sensitivity to the perception, manipulation  Communication disorder- difficulty in  Producing speech sounds  Speech fluency [stuttering]  Using spoken language to communicate [expressive]  Understanding what people say [expressive- receptive language]  Learning disorder- problems in  Reading [dyslexia]  Math  Writing ability  Children approach learning in different ways, each unique style should be recognized and used to full advantage  Educational methods should be tailored to individual strengths and weaknesses  Children w/ learning problems might benefit from teaching methods that strengthen existing ability rather than emphasize weak areas LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT  Phonemes- basic sounds that make up language  Phonological Awareness  Development of language is one of the best predictors for school performance and overall intelligence  But! Delays or differences in development do not mean intellectual retardation  Language predictors are indicators of subsequent communicative and learning disorders  Phonology: ability to learn and store phonemes as well as rules for combining sounds into meaningful units or words  Lack of phonological awareness is a precursor to reading problems  Phonological awareness: recognition of the relationship b/w sounds and letters, detection of rhyme and alliteration  Awareness that sound can be manipulated within syllables in words  Related to expressive language development COMMUNICATION DISORDERS  DSM includes- expressive language disorder, phonological disorder, mixed receptive-expressive disorder, and stuttering  Depends on exact nature of child’s impairment  Expressive Language Disorder  DSM—  A. scores obtained from standardized individually administered measures of expressive language development are substantially below those measuring nonverbal capacity & receptive language development  Clinical symptoms include markedly limited vocab, errors in tense, having difficulty recalling words  B. difficulties with expressive language interfere w/ academic or occupational achievement or with social communication  C. criteria isn’
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