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Chapter 1

PSY34H1 Introduction Chapter 1.docx

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Hywel Morgan

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Chapter 1 – Introduction Defining and Identifying Abnormality  Criteria for abnormality is very based n how people behave and what people say  Some are more obvious for example, if a person doesn't acquire speech  Some instances are hard to judge what is normal and what is not  Behaviours judged as abnormal on atypical, harmful, inappropriate.  Standards for behaviour based on development, culture, gender, and situational norms Atypical or Harmful Behaviours  Can reside within the person an interferes with adaptation not being able to fit in with life circumstances  Can involve the person reaction to situation, a more environmental condition Developmental Standards  Age is important in judging behaviour because it gives a time line on what is considered appropriate behaviour for a certain age (developmental norms) - describe typical rates of growth in forms of different skills, emotion, physical, mental, cognition, social behaviour.  If there is a long duration of an emotion (anxiety) or too little of something, or if a child goes from being very outgoing to very solitary (a quantitative difference).  Behaviour not seen at all in a normal growth period can point to (qualitative difference) when a child is unresponsive to caregiver as an infant, which almost always happen, this can mean they are autistic. Culture and Ethnicity  What's normal in one culture could be different in others.  Collectivist and Individualistic cultures may be different in their cultural norms.  Some disorders are also culturally specific  It could be the way a culture is used to doing its norms can affect how some people behave  When looking at abnormality, must look at race and ethnicity and the customs, values, and language with the origin of people in the specific area. Gender Situations  Gender norms can affect how people perceive someone as being abnormal or not (stereotypes).  Situational norms, what’s expected of you in a certain setting or situation,  Ex. Running in a playground, but not in a library  Also, social interaction has norms, how you ask a person something, meeting someone for the first time. Roles of Others  Children don't refer themselves to clinical help  The feelings of others in their environment are critical on whether or not they are treated or are assumed to have some sort of abnormal behaviour  Referral can have to do more with others characteristics (parents, teachers, family, Dr.'s)  Can be disagreement on what parents, teachers, or others may believe is causing the abnormal behaviour.  Labelling can disrupt the process of treatment or diagnosis.  This can be because each adult involved with a child is exposed to different behaviours because of different settings or situations Changing Views on Abnormality  Due to more knowledge and modifications in theories  Transition in cultural beliefs and values How Common Are Psychological Problems?  Prevalence depends on the kind of disorder, the method used to identify problems, the population examined  Because of all these variables, there is a lot of variation  Believed that changes in society over past decades has increased risk of disorders for young  Many needy youth go unrecognized and do no receive adequate treatment  Many health services are not available in places where needed most  Ex. Poorer communities How are Developmental Level and Disorder Related?  Sometimes disorders are correlated with chronological age due to the developmental level and can make some disorders more likely than others  However, some disorders have a gradual onset with worsening symptoms over time  The time a disorder can occur can depend on extraneous circumstances  Ex. LD once a child hits school  Knowing age of onset can point to etiology, and can explain the severity or outcome of disorder  How Are Gender an Disorder Related?  Male more frequently affected than females  Some gender differences are related to age  Males more prone to brain developmental problems early in life  Females more to emotional problems in adolescence  Developmental changes in externalizing problems (aggression, delinquency)  internalizing problems (anxiety, depression, withdrawal) are different in gender  Problems expresses differently in boys and girls Methodological Differences, True Differences  Bias in studying males more than females  Self-report differences, females more likely to self-report and go get help  Boys usually used in clinical samples because they are more disruptive,  Thus, experiments done and symptomologies pertain to males, which may not fall similar to how females behave for the same disorder  Real differences come from biological an psychological influences  The sex-hormone and chromosomes and brain structure  Ex. X and Y chromosome are related to specific disorders  Gender exposed to different risk experiences  Ex. Boys usually physically victimized, girls usually have more sexual encounters  Different friendship, parents and teacher interactions Historical Influences  Abnormal behaviours involved focus on only adults until 19th century  Study of youth lagged behind study of adults  Beginning of 20th century studies started to alter how child/adolescents were viewed  Progress in 19th Century  Demonology- belief that demons possessed people made them evil, result in psychopathology, within adult mental illness  Somatogenesis - belief that mental illness is due to bodily malfunction or imbalance (Hippocrates)  Symptoms- grouped together to occur in syndrome  Helped to classify disorders as distinct and look at the course and outcomes Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalytic Theory  Psychoanalytic Theory - unconscious motives and thoughts contribute to abnormal behaviour  Psychogenesis - mental behaviour is caused by psychological variables  3 parts of the mind involves conflict ID (instinct drives, not always good), EGO (mediates between ID and SUPEREGO (morals of person))  This conflict can produce anxiety because to protect itself from the awareness of the unacceptable impulse people can create defence mechanisms,  which can help but also generate psychological symptoms  Psycho-sexual Stage Theory - Oral, Anal, Phallic, Genital.  The three first are the most important for later development  If one gets fixated or deprived of one of these stag, than this can alter later personality development  Very controversial theory, but very influential  Current modifications and alterations are done to this theory  Emphasis on psychological causations, mental processes, unconscious motivation, emotions, infant and childhood experiences, and child-parent relationship Behaviourism and Social Learning Theory  Behaviourism - John B. Watson: theories of learning effect behaviour (very experimental)  Classical conditioning - pairing new with old stimuli by its consequence  Law of Effect - Thorndike: Behaviour is shaped by its consequence  Operant Learning - B.F. Skinner : behavioural consequences, using reward and punishment  Emphasized learning, the environment, and experimental methods  Observational Learning- Bandura: social contexts, cognition, and models  Behavioural modifications/therapy- explicit application of learning principles to the assessment and treatment of behavioural problems (rooted in early 20th century)  Social learning/Cognitive behavioural perspectives - use combinations of learning principles and the social context/cognition Mental Hygiene and Child Guidance Movements  Mental hygiene movement - 20th century- aimed to increase understanding, improve treatment and prevent disorder from occurring at all  Child guidance movement - since child experiences were looked at as influencing adult mental health, children became the focus of attention  Interdisciplinary approach was taken involving sociology, education and other disciplines Scientific Study of Youth  Systemic study of youth begin  Where G. Stanley Hall developed the idea of collected data on youth to understand them better and their problems  Establishes the American Psychological Association  In 1920, many longitudinal studies were done and benefited child study Current Study and Practice Central views to developmental psychopathologies  Psychological problems are mainly stemmed from multiple causes  Must look at normal behaviour to understand abnormal  Human complexity must call conceptualization, observation, data collection and hypothesis testing  Continuing efforts needed for prevention and treatment plans  Young people have a right to high quality care in all aspects (diagnosis, treatment, prevention)  Well-being of youth is needed because of their lack of knowledge in this area Working with Youth and their Families Interdisciplinary Effect  Multiple professionals required,  psychologists (Ph.D train in research and clinical settings),  psychiatrists (M.D. view mental disturbances as a medical condition),  social work (can counsel, therapy, broad family)  special education teachers (provide special education needs) The Role of Parents  Can be involved in intervention indirectly or directly, can give good perspectives and background information  For cooperative bonds with mental health worker usually  Family importance very much when treatment is discontinued becau
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