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Chapter 2

PSY341H1 - The Developmental Psychopathology Perspective - Chapter 2.docx

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Hywel Morgan

Chapter 2 - The Developmental Psychopathology Perspective Perspectives, Theories, Models  Perspectives - a view, approach, or mind set that influences how a problem is approached, investigated and interpreted  (paradigm) - shared between investigators include assumptions, concepts and ways to evaluate  Benefits for perspectives:  Helps male sense of the question  Guides the questions asked  What is selected to investigate  What to observe and how  How to interpret and make sense of collected information  Disadvantages include ignoring other questions,  not observing other things,  being central one idea,  not looking at extraneous effects Theories  Theory- a formal integrated set of principles or propositions that explains phenomena  Like a guide for studies of a topic ex. o Psychopathology  Micro-theories - more narrow focus emotion, self-regulation, brain functioning, high level cognition, family interactions  Better for testing specific propositions and developing more concepts  Macro-theories- broad like psychoanalytic theories, criticized for trying and failing to explain too much Models  Model - a representation of description of the idea of study  Interactional models - assumption that variable interact to produce a certain outcome  Vulnerability -stress model - psychopathology causes are from vulnerability factors and stress factors  One which is more biological and the other psychological with social factors in the mix as well  Transaction model - development is the result of ongoing, reciprocal transactions between the individual and the environment context  People are active and bring past experiences that shape their current functioning  Environment has proximal variables and distal variables from the person  System models - include transactional models - incorporate several levels, or systems of functioning where development in viewed as occurring over time as the systems interact or enter into ongoing transactions with each other  Psychosocial model- integrates genetics, behaviour and environment together  If change in one level of functioning, this can effect the other  Ecological model- involves the person with environmental influences Developmental Psychopathology Perspective: An Overview  Developmental psychopathology perspective - combination of developmental psychology and clinical child/adolescent psychology and psychiatry  As well, biological sciences, sociology, and philosophy  Interested in the origins and course of disordered behaviour, adaptation and success  There are microparadigms within the perspective which each hold their own adaptations, theoretical concepts, methods, interpretations ect. Concept of Development  Change over life involving biological psychological and sociocultural transactions of variables  Quantitative changes (i.e. how many new friends) and qualitative change (change in features and qualities of friendships)  More differentiated and integrated systems throughout development  Ex. Biological, motor, physical, cognitive, emotional, social  They also become more complex as they interact with others  Coherent patterns, functioning connected to both past and future functioning  Over the years higher and better functioning can occur, but can also decrease Searching for Causal Factors  Medical model - disorders are discrete and result from specific, and limited biological causes (1900's)  Direct effect - variable X leads straight to the outcome  Indirect effect - variable X influences one or more variables that later lead to outcome (harder)  Mediator - a factor or variable that explains an outcome, by indirect means  Moderator - variable that influences the direction or strength of the relationship between the independent and dependant variable  Necessary cause - must be present in order for the disorder to occur  Sufficient cause - can by itself be responsible for the disorder  Contributing cause - can add to necessary and sufficient cause Pathways of Development  The perspective says that abnormal behaviour emerges over time as child and environment transact  Development is like a pathway over time which during any point of it can be looked at as favourable and unfavourable  New situations and experiences can bring old reactions or new ones  Want to understand the pathways of adaptations and maladaptation's  5 different pathways with more or less negative exposures Equifinality and Multifinality  Equifinality - different paths or factors can produce the same outcome  Multifinality - childr
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