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Psychology (2,981)
PSY341H1 (32)
Chapter 10

psy341 - chapter 10 autism notes.doc

12 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY341H1
Professor
Ross Hetherington

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Chapter 10 Autism Spectrum Disorders and ChildhoodOnset SchizophreniaAutism spectrum disorderssevere developmental disorders characterized by abnormalities in social functioning language and communication and unusual behaviours and interestsPervasive developmental disorders PDDscharacterized by significant impairment insocial and communication skills and by stereotyped patterns of interests and behavioursDescription and Historysee lecture notesKanner autistic children act as if people werent there and oblivious to everything around himoCoined the term autismoSaw it as inborn deficit but believed precipitating factor to be refrigerator parents who wished child didnt existNot supportedAsperger absentminded professorsSome autistic child have extraordinary perceptual abilitiesoCan result in distress in response to minor changes in environmentDSMIVTR Defining Featuressee table 101 on pg 302spectrum disorder symptoms abilities and characteristics expressed in many different combinations and in any degree of severityodifferences contributed bylevel of intellectual abilityranges from profound retardation to aboveaverage intelligenceseverity of language problemsranges from speaking a lot to mutebehaviour changes with ageprogression differencesmay display features not specific to autismie mental retardation epilepsyCore Deficits of Autismsocial impairmentsolack socialemotional reciprocityounusual nonverbal behavioursolack of interestodifficulty relating to othersodifficulty imitating others sharing a focus of attention with others and engaging in makebelieve playolack of understanding of people as social partnerstreat them like objectsodeficits in recognizing facesfacial expressionsoveremphasize one part of face instead of overall shapeoimpairments in joint attentionability to coordinate attention to a social partner and an objectevent of mutual interestnormal children emerge at 914 months of agefound to impede language development in infants with autismomost children with autism are more responsible to caregivers than to unfamiliar adultsdirect more social behaviour and seeking to be closer to caregivers than strangers after brief separationoslight lower but comparable rates of secure attachment to mothers as normal controlsodeficit in ability to understand and respond to social information not in attachment formationautistic children show signs of attachmentjust express in unusual waysodifficulty processing emotional information contained in body language gestures facial expressions voicesort people by what theyre wearing rather than emotional expressionsounusual bodily expressions of emotionslimited spontaneous use of expressive gestures and bizarre rigid or mechanical facial expressionscommunication impairmentsoone of the first signs inconsistent use of early preverbal communicationprotoimperative gesturesgesturesvocalizations used to express needsprotodeclarative gesturesgesturesvocalizations that direct visual attention of others to object of shared interestpurpose to engage people in interactionlacked in autistic children no showing gestureohalf do not develop useful languagedo not use gestures to communicatemotor skills underlie both spoken and nonverbal communicationrely on primitive forms of communicationpulling on mothers hand bringing her box to be opened etcmay use instrumental gestures getting people to do things but fail to use expressive gestures showing emotionoif develop language before age 5often lack of spontaneity and use of qualitative deviant forms of communicationunusual rhythm and intonationlack of social chatterfail to use language in social setting
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