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Chapter 5

psy341 - chapter 5 ADHD.doc

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Ross Hetherington

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Chapter 5 AttentionDeficitHyperactivitiy Disorder ADHDDescription and HistoryHoffmann 1845first known accounts of hyperactivityInattentive hyperactive and impulsiveEarly 1900s compulsory education demanded selfcontrol behaviour in a group settingfocused attention on ADHDStill 1902first described ADHD as disorderInfluenza outbreak 19171926 development of encephalitis linked to irritability impaired attention and hyperactivity in children neurological epidemiologyoBrain injured child syndrome associated with MR1940s50s minimal brain damagedysfunction MBDconveniently attributing behaviour problems to physical cause1950s ADHD referred to as hyperkinesis poor filtering of stimuli in the brainmotor overactivity wasoLead to definition of hyperactive child syndrome considered main feature1970s hyperactivity not the only symptomDSM criteria defined ADHD to include inattentiveness and impulsivityCore Characteristicssee lecture notesInattention IAattentional capacityamount of information we can remember and attend to for a short timeselective attentionability to concentrate on relevant stimuli and not be distracted by noise in the environmentdistractibilitydeficit in selective attentionsustained attention vigilanceability to maintain a persistent focus over time or when fatiguedoprimary attention deficit in ADHDchildren wit ADHD work best on selfpaced task they have chosen themselvesodeficit in alerting initial reaction to stimulus and preparing for task from the outset and not in sustaining attention that has already occurredHyperactivityImpulsivity HIeven in sleep ADHD children display more motor activity than otherscognitive impulsivitydisorganization hurried thinking and the need for supervisionbehavioural impulsivitycalling out in class or acting without considering the consequencesodifficulties inhibiting responses
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