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Chapter 11

psy341 - chapter 11 learning disabilities.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Ross Hetherington

Chapter 11 Communication and Learning DisordersDefinitions and HistorySee lecture notesDSMIVTR replaces learning disabilities with learning disorders and communication disordershidden disorderneed to convince others that is legitimate problemCan be specific or affect narrow range of abilityMain characteristic not performing up to expected level in schoolSymptoms varyCommunication disordersdifficulties inoProducing speech sounds phonological disorderoSpeech fluency stutteringoUsing spoken language to communicate expressive language disorderoUnderstanding what other people say mixed expressivereceptive language disorderthlate 19 c Franz Joseph Gall observed braininjured patients had lost capacity to express feelings and ideas clearly through speech but did not suffer intellectual impairmentsoone patient couldnt speech but could write oreasoned damage localized to part of brain responsible for speechstarted the characterization of brain areas that control and express languagethese kinds of studies show that people with learning disabilities differed from people with MR1940s were academic problems same as measured in general intelligence tests Restriction of MR to certain intellectual abilities instead of all1943 Strauss and Wernerchildren learn in individual ways challenging the concept that learning is a relatively uniform predictable process in children without intellectual disabilitiesoChildren approach learning in different wayseach style needs to be recognized and used to full advantageoEducational methods should be tailored to individual childs pattern of strengths and weaknessesoChildren with learning problems might be helped by teaching methods that strengthen existing abilities rather than emphasize weak areas1960s parents and educators implored need for diagnostic category since not MRDevelopment of special edLanguage Developmentby first birthday recognize a few words and can express some needs and emotionsnext two years language development proceeds at exponential pacephonemesbasic sounds that make up languageauditory map of phonemes develop completely by first birthday by sixmonths map of English speaker already different from nonEnglish speaker
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