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Chapter 5

PSY341 Chapter 5.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George

PSY341 CHAPTER 5DESCRIPTION AND HISTORYDescriptionADHD persistent ageinappropriate symptoms of inattention hyperactivity and impulsivity that are sufficient to cause impairment in major life activitiesTerm ADHD may be newBut around for some timeHeinrich Hoffmann 1845 o German neurologist o Wrote child storybook o First known accounts of hyperactivity o Humor poem o Describing Fidgety PhilLife in Overdrive o More recent article o About Dusty NCommon at mealtimePrimary symptomso Inattentive not focusing on mealtime demands and behaving carelessly o Hyperactive constantly in motion o Impulsive acting without thinkingNo distinct physical symptomsOnly identified by characteristic behVary childtochildBecome blanket termIncd effort and stricter rules wont help o ADHD already trying hard o Want to do well o But constantly held back by limited selfcontrol o Thus hurt confusion sadness o For being blamedOverwhelming feelings frustration being different not fitting in etcHigh costs o 32Byear 2005 o 11000child 2005HistoryNumerous explanations over 100 yearsEarly 1900s o Compulsory educationDemanded selfcontrolled behIn group settingFocused attention on children with ADHD symptoms o Symptoms first described as disorder by George Still 1902OveractivityInattentionBelieved arose out of Poor inhibitory volitionDefective moral control19171926 o Another view of ADHD rose o From worldwide influenza epidemic o Children developed encephalitis and survived o Experienced multiple beh problemsIrritabilityImpaired attentionHyperactivity o These children and others suffered Birth traumaHead injuryExposure to toxins o Display beh problems o Labeled brain injured child syndrome o Associated with mental retardation1940s and 1950s o This label erroneously applied to others with similar beh o But no evidence of brain damage o Or mental retardation o Led to termsMinimal brain damageMinimal brain dysfunction MBD o Convenient way to attribute beh problems to physical cause o Certain head injuries cane explain some ADHD o But brain damage theory eventually rejected o Since only explains few casesLate 1950s o Referred to as hyperkinesis o Poor filtering of stimuli entering brain o Led to definition of hyperactive child syndrome o Motor overactivity considered main feature of ADHD o But soon realized hyperactivity not only problem o Also childs failure to regulate motor activity in relation to situational demands1970s o Argued that hyperactivity not only symptom o Also deficits in Inattention Impulse control o Widely accepted o Long lasting impact on DSM criteria1980s o Interest in ADHD incd o Sharp rise in stimulant use o Controversy to this day o Other symptoms deemed centralPoor selfregulationDifficulty in inhibiting behMotivational deficitsCORE CHARACTERISTICSDSMIVTR criteria for ADHD2 lists of key symptomsFor defining ADHDAnd distinguishing from related problems o Symptoms of inattention o Symptoms of hyperactivityimpulsivityBut this oversimplifies disorder o Each dimension inc many distinct processes defined and measured in various ways o Two closely connected developmentalAttention helps child regulate his beh emotions and impulses
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