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Chapter 2

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Hywel Morgan

Chapter 2 Perspectives, Theories , Models Applying assumptions & methods of science Kuhn writing showed science is not completely objective To study & understand phenomena scientist adopt a perspective a view/ approach or cognitive set o When perspective shared by investigators = paradigm assumptions and concepts and ways to evaluate these Benefit to adopt perspective make sense of complex world, help guide the question ask. Select for investigation, what to observe & how to observe it , how to interpret it & make sense of info we collect ( influence how problem approached, investigated & interpreted) Disadvantages sets some limitations preclude other question, dont observe something else, when choose particular methods to investigate one phenomena can miss other phenomena, limit way we interpret & think about new info Theories Theory is formal, integrated set of principles or proposition that explains phenomena it provides can be tested highly valvued Microtheories apply to circumscribed areas e.g. focus on emotions, self-regulation, brain functioning, higher level cognition. Family interaction o More readily proposing specific causal links among key variables, testing specific propositions & further developing concepts based on empirical finding Macrotheories grand theories e.g. psychoanalytic theory which criticized for trying to explain too much Model Model a representation or description of phenomena of study encourage models that makes us simultaneously consider numerous factors potentially involved in psychopathology Interaction model assumption that variables interrelate to produce an outcome o Vulnerability stress model multiple causes of psychopathology as working together of vulnerability factor ( diathesis) & stress factors both are necessary o Vulnerability often consider biological & stress environmental but I can be biological, psychological or social factors Interaction model dont easily incorporate developmental change as do transactional models Transactional model widely employed in study of both normal & abnormal development basic assumption is development is result of ongoing, reciprocal transaction b/w individual & environmental context o Individual is active agent who bring history of past experience that has shaped their functioning & environmental context is variable that are close (proximal) or further way (distal) from the person Transactional model fall into domain of system model because they incorporate several levels or systems of functioning in which development is occurring over time as they systems interact or enter into ongoing transaction w/ each other o Another e.g. Gottliebs biospcyhosocial model integrate genetic activity, nervous system, behaviour & several aspects of environmental so change at one level of functioning influence other levels o Another e.g. Ecological model situates individual w/in network of environmental influences & assumes transactions b/w person and these influences , as well among several levels of environment Developmental Psychopathology Perspective 1970s this perspective have become influential in study of disorders of youth central to this is coming together of developmental psychology & clinical child/adolescent psychology & psychiatry Developmental psychology traditionally normal develop as its subject matter esp. focused on universal principles of how people grow & change during lifetime Clinical psychology & psychiatry identifying symptoms of psychological disorders , understanding the causes of disorders & alleviating them Further disciplines contribute to this perspective as well - e.g. biological science Is interested in origins & developmental course of disordered behaviour & in individual adaption and success o To understand disorder behaviour in relation to normal development & not specific theory rather integrate various theories / approaches around core of developmental knowledge, issues & questions ( o Micro paradigms e.g. biological , behavioural, psychoanalytic, cognitive etc. under this perspective ( macropardigm) Each micro offers a view of behv science w/ its own assumption , theoretical concepts etc. in developmental psychopathology framework are free adopt what they find useful & reject not useful info from these microparadigm o E.g. psychoanalysis shaky empirical but some concepts are imprt. in explain some disorder Central proposition that problem behv can be fully understood only when normal development is considered , there are several other assumptions as well Concepts of Development Some consensus on essence of development: Refer to change over lifespan from ongoing transaction of an indivd w/ biological, psychological, & sociocultural variables ( which themselves are changing) Quantitative change ( e.g. # of childs social interaction) & qualitative change is more silent (e.g. qualities of social interaction) Common course of early development of biological, motor, physical, cognitive and emotional and social systems w/in each system global structures & f(x)s become finely differentiated & integrated (organization & complexity are enhanced in development) Proceeds in coherent pattern so current f(x) is connected to both past & future f(x) more or less complexity (e.g. youth development path is open & flex but there are some narrowing of possibilities over time) Over lifespan change may produce higher modes of f(x) but change is not inevitably positive Physical aging in adulthood bring decrements in f(x) & maladptive behv can develop @ any time during lifespan 4 overlapping issues central to psychopathology: search for causal factors & processes, pathways of development, risk & resilience & continuity of problems over time Search for Causal Factors & Processes History of explanation in simple way e.g. medical model disorders to be discrete entities that result from specific & limited biological causes w/ in individual o Reinforced in early 1900s realization microorganisms caused syphilis which effected brain & thus causes mental disturbance But now acknowledged there are multiple variables concern person & contextual factors Full account of causation need more than identifying contributory factors need to understand how these factors wor
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