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PSY426H1 (5)
Chapter 4

CH4 - Kruglanski summary.odt

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Jason Plaks

Thinking and motivation Kruglanski's theory: this theory illustrates a difference between the need for specific and non-specific closures – --> seizing – is a process that occurs before belief crystallization where those with a high need for closure are frantically looking for a belief to latch on to – --> freezing – occurs once belief crystallization has occurred, in this process a high need for closure induces a tendency to lock into that belief and adopt a more close minded approach to any new information What causes us to avoid closure – pressures such as the need to avoid invalidity – accountability – implicit or explicit expectation that one maybe called on to justify their beliefs – --> may amplify stereotypical thought Aspects of knowledge construction 1) Motivated nature – theory that individuals seek knowledge in some topics and not others and allocate resources to seeking knowledge in those specific domains 2) Social character – when various social entities are objects of knowledge construction efforts, in other words, people are sometimes the means of supplying info whereby constructive ends are attained The need for closure – the need for cognitive closure refers to an individual's desire for a firm answer to a question and an aversion toward's ambiguity Amotivational continuum in regard to closure – closure may not be desired universally, it varies along a continuum – individual's at the need end of closure may show impulsivity, at the other end (avoiding closure), individual's display reluctance to commit to a definite opinion – benefits of closure: removal of too much info processing, decisiveness – benefits of avoiding closure: for people who fear judgement and need to take time to make decisions Consequences of the need for closure: The urgency and performance tendency – general tendencies that the need for closure may instil 1. urgency tendency – tendency to seize on closure quickly 2. permanence tendency – desire to perpetuate closure, giving rise to dual inclination to a) preserve/ freeze on past knowledge b) to safeguard future knowledge – people under a heightened need for closure may process less info before committing to a judgement – one implication of our seizing and freezing postulate is that those under a heightened need for closure should base their judgements mainly on early or pre-existing cues rather than later info – The quest for epistemic permanence: consensus and consistency striving – once a person w/ a heightened need for closure has formulated a belief and freeze on it, they may tend to preserve it for future reference – consensus bias- people w/ heightened need for closure prefer similar minded others and groups of people – consistency bias – preference for general knowledge applicable across situations Separating seizing from freezing: The point of belief crystallization – a demarcation point separating seizing phenomena from those
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